He then classify the various kinds of states: Machiavelli describes the different kinds of states, debating that all states are either republics or principalities.
Principalities can be divided as hereditary principalities and new principalities. New principalities are either completely new or new additions to existing states. By fortune or strength, a prince can acquire a new principality with his own army or with the arms of others.
The second chapter focuses on hereditary principates. Machiavelli notes that it is easier to govern a hereditary state than a new principality for two main reasons.
The natural prince has to keep past institutions untouched while adapting these institutions. Second, the natural tendency of subjects in a hereditary state is to love the ruling family. He suppress the weaker states by increasing the strength of the major power the Church , bring in a foreign power Spain , never set up colonies, and dispossess the Venetians of their power. Machiavelli goes one step further, noting that it is better to disrupt the poor and powerless than the rich and powerful.
Because the poor cannot fight back. In chapter four, there are two ways to govern a principality. The first contains a prince and appointed ministers. While the ministers help govern, everyone remains obeyed to the prince. The second way includes a prince and nobles. Nobles are not appointed by the prince, but they benefit from their ancient lineage and have subjects of their own. As a result, the first kind is difficult to conquer, for him, and easy to hold onto.
But the latter is easy to conquer and difficult to hold onto. Machiavelli describes three ways to hold states that have been familiar to living freely under their own laws. The first is destroying them. The second is occupying them for the conqueror. The third is to allow the state to maintain its own laws, but to charge taxes and establish an oligarchy to keep the state friendly.
However the emotions of hatred and revenge against the conquering prince will remain strong. The memories of ancient liberty never die, so a prince will be better off destroying the republic or personally occupying the conquered state. So, he seems to favor the first option. According to Machiavelli, the most remarkable princes who became princes by their own power were Moses of the Hebrews, Cyrus of Persia, Romulus of Rome, and Theseus of Athens.
He defines them as the legend of the past and the models for present and future princes. Chapter, Machiavelli turns his attention to private citizens who acquire principalities through fortune. These princes make no effort in acquiring power, but they face many problems in preserving it. Without a loyal army or any traditions, a prince of a new state that relies on fortune does not have a good chance for surviving.
He mainly argues that the difficulty lies on maintaining the power, not just possessing it. Machiavelli makes differentiate between the cruelty and the kind of clever ruthlessness. He gives two examples: According to him,the cruelty can be remarkable well-used if it is carried out in one shot, and if it can be interpreted as necessary for self-preservation. Bennett, In 9. Chapter, Machiavelli guides princes who gain power not only through cruelty or other kinds of violence, but also the consent of his fellow citizens.
He named this type of principalities as the civil principalities where after prince situation can be determined either by the will of people or by the will of the nobles. However if the people feel that they are oppressed by the nobles, they would try to make one of their own a prince and then this person becomes their shield against the nobles. In the end, Nicia, who is supposedly too ignorant to know that he has been a party to his own cuckoldry, is so delighted with the prospect of a son that he makes Callimaco a part of his household, thereby providing his wife with a fertile live-in lover.
However, Machiavelli again puts his own distinctive perspective on the plot and characters. For example, although the plot revolves completely around the title character, Clizia, she never actually appears on stage. The story concerns a father and son who are both enamored of the same woman, Clizia, a ward in their home.
The father is planning to marry her to one of his servants who can be counted on to share her with his master. The son wants to marry her himself, but cannot tell his mother because Clizia's parentage is unknown, making her an unsuitable wife. Meanwhile, the mother, disgusted with her love-sick husband, substitutes a male servant for the bride at the wedding. The mother reveals the switch in the marriage bed, thus humiliating her husband, teaching him a lesson and gaining control over him.
Clizia's father suddenly appears, providing Clizia with the status required to marry the son, and the play ends with order restored overall. Because many of his works were not published until long after they were written, their dates are uncertain. Mandragola was first produced under the title Comedia di Callimaco: E di Lucretia at the house of B. Machiavelli's plays were generally received by his audiences—the moneyed and powerful aristocracy—as amusing entertainment. The revolutionary nature of his subject matter, his style, and his play construction would later have a profound impact on the European theater, and his influence on contemporary playwrights would help change the future of theater.
Mandragola is still performed today and is often discussed as a pivotal work in history of theater courses. Although the action of the Mandragola occurs in I, 1 , its composition date remains controversial.
Various dates have been cited by Tiraboschi , Villari and Tommasini , Renaudet , Colimore , and Ridolfi January-February Ridolfi's speculations, having recently gained widest acceptance, Since antiquity, comic theory has pursued two different approaches.
One analyzes the structure of the comic object and seeks to explain the comic action itself. University Press of New England, According to a tongue-in-cheek prologue written for a recent production of The Mandrake,.
Yale University Press, I write about Machiavelli's comedy. But what is comedy? This is a question to which I shall keep returning throughout this essay; to begin with, though, I do not mean only the comedies as categorized by the literary critics who divide literature into comedy, tragedy, romance, and all such assorted genres.
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- Machiavelli Essay: Question 1 Born in the 15th century, Niccolò Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, philosopher, diplomat and humanist. Following his career as an official in the Florentine Republic, Machiavelli was a founder of modern political science and political ethics.
Free College Essays - Machiavelli’s Politics in The Prince - The Prince - Machiavelli’s Italian Politics The Prince was one of the first humanist works of the Renaissance. .
Machiavelli says a ruler is better to be feared instead of being loved (43, 44, and 45). A man's priority is thinking about himself rather than caring about others, and a man is always thinking about his own benefit and safe before thinking about others'. This Machiavelli's thought tells me his realistic view of humanity. The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli was written in the year A.C.E. in Italy during a time in which his views were greatly detested by others. They were so hated that he was exiled from his own country for writing them.
Machiavelli Essay Words | 6 Pages Niccolo Machiavelli, one of the great political minds of the 15th century, accomplished what many mathematicians today only dream of, having one’s name used as an adjective. [In the following essay, Faulkner discusses Machiavelli's humor and underlying message in La clizia.] The Clizia is a comedy about love that borders on the scandalous. As a matter of fact, it crosses the border.