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How to Put Citations in a Research Paper

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❶The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography.

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This article is a part of the guide:
How to Cite
How to Format an in Text Citation

Occasionally, you may have to use a source that has been referenced in another source. If you can, try to find the original source and use that. If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system. Sorgheloos, , as cited in Sargeant, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research. A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors BCE use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography:.

Although most word processors provide an automatic system of doing this, the added complexity, and the way that it makes the paper unwieldy for the reader, means that it is falling out of fashion. It is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism , but there are a few times that citation is not necessary. General knowledge, such as 'Crick and Watson discovered the structure of DNA,' will not need referencing. Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution.

If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:.

Martyn Shuttleworth Oct 15, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.

If you are using the exact wording, use quotation marks. If you are paraphrasing, you do not need to add quotations. Put the page number where the quote or information comes from in parenthesis with the period to end the sentence afterward. If you do not use the author's name in the sentence leading up to the quote or data, then you must put the author's name in the parenthesis before the page number.

Mention the name of the work with a shortened version of the title leading up to your data or quote. Add a period outside the parenthesis to end the sentence. Place a shortened version of the title of the work in parenthesis along with the page number if you did not mention it earlier.

Then, add the period on the outside of the parenthesis to end the sentence. Use the first title that the source has listed in your bibliography when you mention it leading up to the quote or data.

If you haven't already, place the first thing that this source lists in your bibliography in parenthesis. For websites do not put full URLs. On a new, double-spaced line, center the title fig. Do not italicize or underline your title, put it in quotation marks or boldface, or type it in all capital letters. Follow the rules for capitalization in the MLA Handbook 67—68 , and italicize only the words that you would italicize in the text.

Do not use a period after your title or after any heading in the paper e. Begin your text on a new, double-spaced line after the title, indenting the first line of the paragraph half an inch from the left margin. A research paper does not normally need a title page, but if the paper is a group project, create a title page and list all the authors on it instead of in the header on page 1 of your essay. If your teacher requires a title page in lieu of or in addition to the header, format it according to the instructions you are given.

Number all pages consecutively throughout the research paper in the upper right-hand corner, half an inch from the top and flush with the right margin. Type your last name, followed by a space, before the page number fig. Do not use the abbreviation p. Your writing program will probably allow you to create a running head of this kind that appears automatically on every page.

Some teachers prefer that no running head appear on the first page. The list of works cited appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes. Begin the list on a new page. The list contains the same running head as the main text. The page numbering in the running head continues uninterrupted throughout.

For example, if the text of your research paper including any endnotes ends on page 10, the works-cited list begins on page Center the title, Works Cited , an inch from the top of the page fig. If the list contains only one entry, make the heading Work Cited. Double-space between the title and the first entry.

Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines half an inch from the left margin.

This format is sometimes called hanging indention , and you can set your writing program to create it automatically for a group of paragraphs.

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Weatherbee’s paper is a source; you cite that source by pointing to it with the citation. A citation is text that points to the author of a work from whom you have gathered information that you’ve included in .

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How to Format an in Text Citation There are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of MLA and APA style. Check with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be consistent.

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Writing a paper, especially a research paper, requires you to cite your source for any information or thoughts that are not your own. If you do not, you risk being accused of plagiarism. A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source. See The MLA Style Manual and The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, particularly Citation and bibliography format. The MHRA Style Guide is published by the Modern Humanities Research Association.

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Proper in-text citations within a research or term paper can make the difference between a passing and failing grade, as failure to provide proper in-text citations can lead to a charge of plagiarism. APA Research Paper Format. APA (American Psychological Association) research paper format is often used in papers related to psychology and social sciences. In this citation, there is a general format in referencing through endnotes/footnotes, in-text, and reference pages.