During the early s, the civil rights movement gathered momentum, aided by new anti-racist legislation, and reached a major goal in with the passage of the Civil Rights Act. Many feminists interpreted the ban on racial discrimination, established by the Civil Rights Act, to apply to gender discrimination as well. The student movement was also at its height in the s, leading many younger citizens to question traditional social values and to protest against American military involvement in Vietnam.
Feminist groups followed the example set by these movements, adopting the techniques of consciousness raising, protests, demonstrations, and political lobbying in order to further their own agenda.
The founding of the National Organization for Women NOW in marked the formation of an official group to represent and campaign for women's concerns. Leaders such as Friedan, Bella Abzug, Shirley Chisholm, and Gloria Steinem pressured politicians to become aware of women's concerns and to work on legislation that would improve the quality of women's lives. In the early s feminist leaders also established a detailed program of proposed political and legal reforms, and in the National Women's Agenda was presented to President Gerald Ford, all state governors, and all members of Congress.
In , feminists organized a National Women's Conference in Houston, where they drafted an action plan that included twenty-six resolutions; the plan was subsequently distributed to government officials to remind them of their responsibility to female constituents.
NOW and the newly organized National Women's Political Caucus worked to influence politicians and legislators while continuing their effort to keep women's issues prominent in the media.
During the s, American society was colored by an increasingly conservative political climate and the feminist movement experienced a backlash within their ranks and from anti-feminist detractors. Feminism had always been criticized for being a predominantly white, upperclass movement and for its failure to adequately understand and represent the concerns of poor, African-American, and Hispanic women.
The movement had already splintered in the s along the lines of liberal feminists, who focused on the rights of women as individuals; radical feminists, who aligned themselves with revolutionary groups, viewing women as a disenfranchised class of citizens; and lesbians, who had been very much a part of the early feminist movement, but now found more in common with the gay liberation movement.
Legislative gains achieved in the s—notably Congress's passing of the ERA amendment and key judicial decisions, chief among them Roe v. Wade, which guaranteed women's reproductive rights—were under attack by conservative and religious antiabortion coalitions and an organized anti-ERA effort led by Phyllis Schlafly. Some state legislatures backtracked under pressure, overturning or diluting court decisions made in the previous decade.
Due to a combination of political and social factors, the amendment failed to pass in the individual states. In addition, some women who had subscribed to the tenets of the feminist movement now voiced their displeasure at being negatively labeled anti-male and expressed regret at the loss of personal security that traditional women's roles offer.
Their concerns echoed in the neoconservative writings of authors such as Naomi Wolf, Susan Faludi, and Camille Paglia. Nevertheless, feminists pressed on, maintaining pressure on legislators to address women's issues such as reproductive rights, pay equity, affirmative action, sexual harassment, and the handling of rape victims in the courts.
In retrospect, the early s has been termed the "first wave" of the feminist movement, and the activists of the s and s have been called the "second wave. This mostly younger generation of feminists would also stress the need to broaden the scope of feminism, emphasizing global networking, human rights, worldwide economic justice, and issues pertaining to race, gender, and class.
This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color [editors] anthology Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson criticism The main difference between revolutionary and reformist feminism is that reformist thinkers fight for gender equality. Revolutionary thinkers wanted something completely different from the existing situation of that time. They tried to get rid off sexism and patriarchy.
In other words, they wanted to change the system. Reformist feminism was not anti-men feminism; it just demanded the equality of women and men. Reformist thinkers were ready to live in an existing system, all they wanted was to have the same rights as men did. The author Bell Hooks advocates the revolutionary feminism. To support this statement, one can remember the definition of feminism, which was created by Hooks. Her definition meets the goals of revolutionary feminism.
The author compares oppressed woman to a bird in a cage. Such woman is not free to do what she wants; therefore she is neither personally nor economically free. The example of Double Bind is that women are penalized in both situations: On one hand, if women are feminine, they are blamed with conformity.
On the other hand, women who are decisive are blamed with the lack of femininity. In contrast, men are not penalized if they are masculine. They can be penalized only in case of being not masculine, in other words, if they do not meet the norms of standard. The analogy between oppression and a birdcage lies in a restricted freedom. Like a bird in a cage, an oppressed woman does not have enough freedom to live her life in a way she wants to.
She cannot be free economically and personal. She has no freedom of acts and thoughts.
Free feminism papers, essays, and research papers. Feminism in the Awakening by Kate Chopin - Kate Chopin boldly uncovered an attitude of feminism to .
By general definition, feminism is a philosophy in which women and their contributions are valued. It is based on social, political and economical equality for women. Feminists can be anyone in the population, men, women, girl or boys. Feminism can also be described as a movement.
Feminism. Essay sample by hlcss.ml company. Introduction. Feminism refers to a broad range of ideas, approaches, and ideologies directed towards advocating for gender and sex equality for women. Feminism is a movement that seek to achieve equality and social rights for women in all key areas which includes education, personal. Feminism Essay examples. Feminism is the belief that women should have economic political and social equality with men. This term also refers to a political movement that works to gain equality within a male and female relationship. In a male and female relationship both the roles of .
Essays and criticism on Feminism in Literature - The Feminist Movement in the 20th Century. “Feminism essays” are essays written on topics related to “Feminism” for which no single definition seems to exist. In the Western world the term was barely used till late 19th century circa. The term .