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❶American Civil Liberties Union Friend or Foe America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives.

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Mills presents a complicated picture of the future of tyranny -- on the one hand…… [Read More]. Liberty Mean to You The. Indeed, a government is free to decide on the way it rules over a nation, but also the nation is free to enjoy the returns of labor or the aid provided when needed.

Coming back to the original concept of freedom, I feel the need to emphasis the importance of its exact meaning, and on the fact that without it the other forms have no connotation. By this I mean the act of being free, unconstrained by any law-enforcing authority, and the ability to have access to whatever brings on happiness and motivation.

Nevertheless, the notion of self-control is imperative in this situation. He or she basically has the right to express himself or herself as long as the means by which he or she does it do not harm or potentially…… [Read More]. Which ethical theory is the best in your opinion for selecting a "winner"? The philosophy of utilitarianism is problematic, given the difficulty of determining which group constitutes the 'majority' whose desires should rule over others. It is often said that if the First Amendment free speech and the Fourth Amendment unreasonable searches were 'put to a vote,' the American public would vote against them, because of its collective dislike of the ability of unpopular groups to articulate their ideas and its anger at seeing guilty people go free.

Also, utilitarianism makes no allowance for the rights of minority groups at all, which can intensify the 'losses' of the minority group whose liberties are infringed upon to protect the rights of others. Deontology's excessive rigidity can result in the curtailment of freedom -- how does one create rules that are universally applicable…… [Read More].

Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness Life. Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness The idea of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is always a fascinating idea of debate when it comes to the subject of unalienable human rights. Sure enough, they are clearly the basis and foundation in which many current governments are built. A person is entitled to his right to live, to continue a worldly and bodily survival as defined.

A person is entitled to liberty, to freedom of his own actions; the limitation of one's decision-making process would otherwise render the idea of "humanity" obsolete otherwise. Lastly, a person is entitled to the pursuit of happiness, because in the end, what does humanity crave most in the world?

Clearly the finding of that said happiness. The definitions of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness, however, are a matter of debate between persons to persons, societies…… [Read More]. Liberty Justice for All Is. They have a life-long commitment to this kind of work.

We try to find ways to help some of these people out," she says. The ideas outlined in the article reflect how several groups of attorneys who are dedicated to helping out people who are in desperate need of attorneys as they face deportation, often after years of living in the United States.

These minorities are too poor to hire their own attorney, so they need pro bono legal aid to keep families, homes and jobs together. America stands poised for a new social revolution, akin to those taking place in the s. In Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt, Christ Hedges and Joe Sacco reminds readers of why former social revolutions did take place and why the struggle for social justice continues.

In their five separate narratives, the authors depict various aspects of American failure: The foundations of the nation depend on the assurance of Constitutional ideals, which is why the struggle continues. In Liberty City, issues related to race, class, gender, and social power all come under scrutiny. The city lives on the edge, as if in a perpetual race against its own self-destruction.

Liberty City, like many…… [Read More]. Berlin's Two Concepts of Liberty. Despite his high rhetoric which goes on for over 30 pages, Berlin does conclude that he is of the opinion that no matter whether liberty is negative or positive, it is, nonetheless, important, should be available to all, and simply because values are compromised does not mean that they are not eternal or secure.

The reader, thus assumes by the end of the commentary that Berlin is indeed of the opinion that liberty is of the utmost importance to a functioning society. Critique There are various critiques upon Berlin's work.

The one to be examined here will be that of oberto Toscano who…… [Read More]. Kant Rousseau Liberty Give Me. Rousseau offers a mix of philosophical notions of liberty with advice and opinions on how to structure a government that promotes equality and liberty, but not excessively so, that the will of the majority or strong overcomes the will or the rights of the minority.

The philosopher Immanuel Kant was even more concerned with the philosophical notions of liberty, but he detached them from their functioning in government and instead was concerned about human being's innate liberty to do morally good or evil actions.

Kant saw morality as existing not as something that could be constructed at will by human beings, but as something that existed for all time, and to be commensurate with the categorical imperative, people must act…… [Read More]. Religious Liberty as Stated in the First. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law.

Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland which was officially declared an Anglican state in both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.

Reconciliation of the Liberties. Reconciliation of the Liberties Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosopher in the eighteenth century who wrote about topics as varied as religion and politics. He famously worked on a treatise with respect to government that attempted to explain what government should be. His thoughts, called "On the Social Contract," were an attempt to reconcile the liberties of the ancients and the moderns as they were called being, as yet, modern to Rousseau.

His belief was that actual government should be as close to true human nature as is possible. This nature, he said, was such that it wanted no government, but that it needed to be a part of a collective to receive both protection and goods. He related that there were ancient societies which tried to do this, and that the liberty of the moderns was much the same because people did not change.

The general nature of man had…… [Read More]. John Stuart Mills On Liberty. Theories of Freedom John Stuart Mill's On Liberty is one of the foundational defenses of liberal, democratic government.

According to Mill, there are certain core principles "that should regulate how governments and societies, whether democratic or not, can restrict individual liberties. However, since Mill wrote, even a number of…… [Read More]. Freedom, Liberty, And Authority homas Jefferson is attributed as saying "the price for freedom is constant vigilance. John Stuart Mills captured this idea years after the original constitutional convention, Declaration of Independence and the Constitution recorded these and other words into the annals of history.

Mills accurately captured the reason U. Mills begins in much the same way as Hamilton as he sets the stage for the path, and pursuit of freedom. He identifies that there exists in…… [Read More]. One of the fundamental issues taking place in the United States in the present day encompasses the aspect of civil liberties and civil rights for all individuals and groups.

A particular aspect in consideration is the lack of fairness and equity for black people in the United States. In the contemporary, there continues to be heated debate and arguments made regarding how the African-American group of people are being treated in the nation. In particular, the issue in this regard encompasses the recent verdict made by a jury ruling that Jeronimo Yanez, a police officer in Minnesota was not guilty for shooting and killing Philando Catile.

Imperatively, castile was killed by the police officer during a routine traffic stop while with his girlfriend and child Miller, Observed Political Event The observed political event is a political rally and speech made by Valerie, Philando Castile's mother subsequent to the verdict…… [Read More].

On Liberty and the US Constitution. Constitution None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street OS movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States.

At the time the Constitution was written in , human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification.

In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in much less He insisted that individuals should be left…… [Read More]. Freedom and Liberty in the Revolutionary Era. The "Enlightenment" was the 18th century's attempt to break out of the self-imposed restrictions of society and create something better. In other words, man had the ability to create a more perfect form of government, one more in line with the rights of the people.

This idea, by its very nature, is an attempt to transfer authority over society from a select few, to the masses of people. The idea of taking power away from Kings, and other rulers, and creating governmental system that would be created and responsible to the people is what the…… [Read More].

Colonists' Notions of Liberty and. As such, it became out of the ordinary that prosperous colonists and individuals had become subject to arbitrary decisions from an authority that was thousands of kilometers away. A sense of injustice had developed to a point to which it even covered the economical motivations: The Works of John Adams, vol.

On the Internet at http: Last retrieved on October 17, 2. To the Free and loyal inhabitants of the city and colony of New York. Last retrieved on October 17, rutus. To the…… [Read More]. Revolutionary Women for Liberty and Freedom. Revolutionary Women for Liberty and Freedom Although they lived in an era defined by the pursuit of personal freedom, as their male counterparts courageously waged a successful revolution against the tyranny of the British monarchy, there were several patriotic women who made their presence felt during the tumultuous time of America's birth.

From the poignant letters written by Abagail Adams to her husband John, the diplomat and statesman who worked tirelessly as a Founding Father to help form the foundation of a new union, to the steady hand of companionship provided by Martha Washington to her husband George as he led an undermanned and outgunned army against the most powerful armed forces in the world, women exerted their influence largely from behind the scenes. With the concept of liberty emerging as an ideal worth fighting for, as thousands of Americans bravely laid down their lives to secure liberty for their…… [Read More].

Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Civil rights can be delineated as the very basic and fundamental rights to be free from unequal treatment, on the basis of particular attributes that are considered important, for instance gender, race, and also disability. The Bill of Rights protects all citizens of the nation against the infringement of their rights and liberties by any entity and even the state, as it is assured in the Constitution. One of the key civil rights discussed and debated in the United States in the present day encompasses the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning community LGBTQ Newton, Describe the observed political event in detail, including the environment and people involved The event I attended was a political protest that covered the annual gay rights march.

In particular, the parade was in search of shedding some light on the gay rights. The individuals that participated in the parade…… [Read More]. Locke The Natural Liberty of. As for knowledge, Locke believed that "the best and surest way to get clear and distinct knowledge is through examining and judging ideas by themselves" Locke, , VI: The Family -- Locke lived in a time in which the family was patriarchal and central to the argument of the opponents to limited government.

In early-modern England the family structure was more authoritarian, intolerant, and sexist. Locke's political theory had revolutionary implications that could easily be exported to governments, and as an individualist, it is easy to see why Locke would look upon inequality and mindless subjugation as unproductive and antithetical.

In this the natural rights family was radical in the sense that it held that everyone born was capable of actualization. The family was a microcosm of government, and also served as a way to train individuals into their roles and responsibilities within society Ward, , pp.

Outline Luther's position saving power faith works 'On Christian Liberty'? Shakespeare Richard II 1. Martin Luther's "Appeal to the German Nobility" was meant to stand as an attack on Rome with regard to the Catholic Church's failure to support reform. He emphasized three walls of the Romanists in the document and discussed about the reasons why it was essential for society to acknowledge the Church's failure to act in accordance with its early principles.

The first idea relates to how there is no difference between the secular and temporal states and that the Book of Revelation actually supports the belief that baptism enables individuals to act as priests.

This first issue was meant to provide the masses with information concerning how priests were little more than functionaries. The second idea denounces the Pope's authority…… [Read More]. Man Who Shot Liberty Valance.

Man ho Shot Liberty Valance and the Brilliance of John Ford John Ford's The Man ho Shot Liberty Valance , a classic western with a few film noir elements included, is elegiac in the sense that its narrative strategy is that of eulogistic remembrance by now-Senator Ransom Stoddard, of horse rancher Tom Doniphan, who once saved Stoddard's life and changed it much for the better, and who was the real man who shot Liberty Valance.

According to Robert Horton, "This may be the saddest estern ever made, closer to an elegy than an action movie, and as cleanly beautiful as its central symbol, the cactus rose" "Editorial Reviews". Upon Tom Doniphan's death in the small fictional town of Shinbone state unknown Ransom and Hallie Stoddard arrive back in town to pay their final respects to Doniphan who sacrificed so much of himself, and so much of his own future happiness,…… [Read More].

Negative Liberty vs Positive Liberty. Negative Liberty Much is made about freedom and liberty in the United States. Indeed, this stretches all the way back to the founding of this nation. That founding was spurred and motivated in large part by the lack of freedom and representation that the British colonists felt they were receiving with the British crown.

Over the years, one of the subtopics that has developed is negative liberty. Generally, negative liberty is the idea that someone has the right to not be bothered or pestered by people or authorities.

Analysis Negative liberty is a subject that has evolved and changed over the years. The modern manifestation of negative liberty…… [Read More]. American Civil Liberties Union. American Civil Liberties Union Friend or Foe America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives.

America, unlike many of its foreign counterparts has long recognized the benefits of individual rights, freedoms and privileges and has fought to the death to protect them. Currently, America aims to spread these principles of democracy around the globe in an effort to create a better quality of life for all mankind. Even with these lofty and ambitious goals, America, on occasion fails to uphold these principles within its own borders.

Too often, America has overlooked the problems prevalent within its own country while criticizing other nations about their own circumstances. Many of these overlooked issues including slavery, discrimination, women's rights and others have left an unfavorable image in American history. Christian Liberty Martin Luther and. Luther feels that it is through Christ that man can attain salvation and not through soul or spiritual deeds alone.

By Christ, he was probably referring to one's faith in Lord. One thing, and only one thing, is necessary for Christian life, righteousness, and freedom.

Negative Liberty Not Always Justified. On the same note, the right of people to generally live their lives and be left alone is also presumed to be true in many to most cases. However, those two paradigms inevitably collide because they cannot both be true at the same time in all situations. There are situations where government should or must step in just as there are situations where they should leave people alone and let them live how they wish.

The million dollar question is where that line precisely exists in certain situations because it can be far from clear what that answer is. Analysis One source that the author of this report focused on was the definition of positive and negative liberty. The latter one, that…… [Read More].

Security Liberty and Participants. Stone's treatise on Liberty fascinating particularly since I have been much intrigued by philosophers' depiction of an ideal metropolis with, therefore, ideal liberty in general, and with Leibniz's political jurisprudence and ideal liberty in particular. Leibniz, draws on Ulpian's oman code for basis but goes beyond that in extrapolating and arguing that ideal liberty should constitute not only strict Justice but also Charity i..

He then goes on to state that the highest strata of liberty is one where the country is regulated per a City of God. What this, essentially, means is that Justice and Charity should be combined with ethical attributes that he called Piety. Comparing this to Mill's definition of liberty presented by Stone I see an interesting correspondence as well as contrast. Mill states that the government is only justified in restricting behavior that impedes others. Connecting that to contemporary concerns one may argue…… [Read More].

American Civil Liberties Union Is. Chambers and Wedel, , p. The application of objectives can be very broad to very specific based on historical best practices according to the CLU and other civil rights movements. If for instance a goal is to reduce the infringement of the constitutional rights of a single individual, who was transgressed against, the legal means might be used as a logical objective, while other goals, such as decreasing the utilization of the U.

American Civil Liberties Union U. The Court's rationale was that the plaintiffs were likely to prevail at trial on their argument that there were plausible, less restrictive alternatives to the statute, particularly blocking or filtering software OLR Two of the justices in the majority also joined in a concurring opinion, finding other constitutional defects in the law and of the four justices who dissented, three asserted that the law was the least restrictive alternative because it regulated a very small amount of lawful speech…… [Read More].

Precious Than Independence and Liberty. Ho Chi Minh was highly educated and attended various universities around the world according to the literature from numerous sources including the Eastern Worker's University and Lenin School in Moscow.

He was trained in Moscow involving revolutionary tactics Columbia Encyclopedia Minh had a strong desire to make Vietnam an independent country and spent his whole life in pursuit of this dream. In southern China, Minh trained the exiles in techniques involving revolutionary tactics.

Years of oppression and hardship drove the Vietnamese people to join Minh in his ideals. The seemingly ordinary man was highly educated according to all sources referred and…… [Read More]. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements.

Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive.

While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…… [Read More]. Ganju is the CEO of "Room to Read," an organization that seeks to help educate children through reading and other skills in order that today's children can grow up with the power to change the world for the better.

Erin Ganju -- hat are the Important Issues? Ganju begins her video by explaining how "passionate" her parents were -- when she was just a child -- about sharing information with her regarding different cultures. A sense of "wanderlust" was "instilled" in her, Ganju explains. Importantly, Ganju's parents not only took their daughter to many interesting places, but the family read about each place they visited, encouraging both reading…… [Read More].

Works utilize source equally documented text listed properly a works cited page. Passion during the Civil War The American Civil War occurred between and and is largely considered the most destructive conflict in U. Much controversy still surrounds the nature of this conflict, as its determining causes are complex. Contemporary international perception may have placed a progressive, anti-slavery label on the whole affair, yet the basic fact remains that nineteenth century America was an increasingly inhomogeneous country and prone to blatant discrepancy.

This work is focused on providing an analysis of Southern and Northern perspectives from a justifying point-of-view, in order to form an outline of the opposing sides' motives. Both parties were strongly driven by…… [Read More]. This act enables patients who are terminally ill to end their lives by use of self-administration of medications that are lethal in nature and that the physician has prescribed to the patient for this express purpose.

The work of Durante examines the claims of Lindsay on this subject and reports that the evaluation of the experience of Oregon with physician-assisted suicide of Ronald Lindsay is "a much needed counterpart to moral speculation. Mill's basic principle, assess the legitimacy of laws a requiring motorists to wear helmets, b preventing people from walking naked in public parks, c forbidding people to take drugs like cocaine or heroin, or d outlawing skateboarding in certain areas.

Mill's "harm principle" as stated in On Liberty could possibly be a legitimate reason to enforce wearing helmets for motorists, outlaw people from walking naked in parks, outlaw cocaine or heroin usage, and ban skateboarding in certain areas.

Yet, as Mill himself states, "The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others" p. With that said, one may be able to object to the application of Mill's "harm principle" in so far as it applies to motorists, nudists, drug users, and skateboarders for the simple reason that they are not necessarily…… [Read More]. Woody Liberty and Fear Custom.

For example, the company did create a monthly cash flow chart for the modernization project. However, this flow chart was not regularly re-evaluated over the course of the project on a regular and timely basis, once delays became a problem.

There was no talk of scaling back or reformulating the approach, once it became clear that the project was going to be more expensive and take longer than anticipated. Additionally, there was no careful monitoring of the external market environment for opportunities or threats that could affect the future profitability of the project. The lack of close monitoring was especially detrimental to the company because of the fact that the contracted firm, EIS, was paid at an hourly rate: Another poor strategy was evident in their criteria for selecting members of the leadership team.

For example, Ian Leadbetter did…… [Read More]. Bob Dylan and His Era. This article acts as a panegyric to Bob Dylan, describing him as representing "a hardly imaginable synthesis, combining the longings of a social romantic, the pride and arrogance of an individualist outsider, the derision of a satirist and the bitterness of an apocalyptic prophet" Honneth then goes on to describe how Dylan fits each of these roles. He likens Dylan to something greater than a simple songwriter or performer, but like a prophet or great spokesman for a generation.

Art, he explains, has the ability to transcend its cultural moment and speak to a greater truth than has heretofore been understood. All artists, he states, have made a contribution to this popular culture. Dylan, however has the ability to include subtle messages of autonomy and freedom, unlike…… [Read More].

The way that a certain brand is advertised depends on what the company decided for that brand, namely what the strategy for it is.

It also depends on a variety of marketing-related elements, such as product positioning on the market or the targeted group of consumers. For example, a brand that is 2 on the market and aims to be 1 may have an advertising campaign that targets the leader. In correlating the advertising strategy with the branding strategy, our company needs to consider several elements. First, this is a new company, as well as a niche company. The first objective of a successful advertising strategy is to relate to the characteristics of the brand and understand how to reach the targeted group…… [Read More].

Marketing Plan for Liberty Travel Company. Dole is association for most Americans with pineapples and with various shady dealings in Hawai'i. If you want to go bananas, you go to Chiquita. This paper examines the marketing strategy currently employed by Dole Bananas, asking how well this company is doing against others in the banana business as well as asking from what other directions Dole might face competition in the future and how well it is prepared to meet those challenges.

Chiquita is indeed Dole's major competitor at least in terms of banana sales it is not a significant competitor in terms of pineapples, for example and the two companies have clearly tried in recent years to differentiate themselves from each other so as to grab a larger share of the market. This is…… [Read More]. Civil Liberties and Terrorism. Limiting te Spread of Radical and Online ate speec or retoric tat calls for violence against anoter organization or te government itself.

Sources of information about operational tecniques, suc as ow to create bombs, develop poisons or to carry out effective violent attacks. Wenever te subject of terrorism comes up, te question of ow to balance law-abiding Americans' rigts to individual freedom wit te need for public safety inevitably must be addressed.

In , in Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project, te U. Supreme Court found tat even "peaceful speec in te U. Te material in question did not meet te standard of Brandenburg v. Oio, "wic eld tat advocacy of violence can be made criminal only if it is directed to incite imminent lawless action and is also likely to produce suc…… [Read More].

Patrick Henry's Speech in March Liberty Patrick Henry's speech to in March of is one of the best-known speeches in American history, and captured the emotions being experienced by many people involved in the American evolution.

Henry differed from many of the other leaders of the evolution in that he had not gained prominence and respect prior to the revolutionary period. Henry began life as somewhat of a ne'er do well, eventually choosing the practice of law. He eventually became a prominent member of the evolution, where he was considered a liberal firebrand and a powerful orator. This was due to his commitment to individual liberty, which is evident in his most famous speech. For him, it is also important to know that liberty, while dependent on the individual's decision alone, should also take into account the consequences that will come out upon the accomplishment of an action.

That is, it is vital that the individual think of the 'bigger picture': Mill posits on this issue, "The liberty of the individual must be thus far limited; he must not make himself a nuisance to other people It is desirable, in short, that in things which do not primarily concern others, individuality should assert itself. Where, not the person's own character, but the traditions or customs of other people are…… [Read More].

Mill Place Any Limits on. Every act happens at some time and in some place, and in like manner every act that we do either does or may affect both ourselves and others. Rees is at the helm of the counter-movement of interpretations, arguing that there is a distinguishable difference between actions that affect others and those that affect others' interests; he purports that it is the protection of other's interests to which Mill meant for liberty's limitation.

Rees constructs a relativistic, conservative interpretation of liberty, in which the emphasis is placed on distinguishing interests from 'arbitrary wishes, fleeting fancies, and capricious demands. The freedom of choice…… [Read More]. Balance between Emergency Powers. There appears to be significant connection between increase of liberty and insecurity Gearty 1. However the question here is what security means, in some instances, security could be national threats such as terror attacks or internal forces threatening the political establishments, those that advance particular ideological ends such as those witnessed in Most North African such as Libya and Arabian countries such as Yemen.

Nonetheless, in instances of such threats, civil liberties suffer and it becomes a challenge reconciling it with national security. There are many aspects of liberal democracy such as freedom of expression, association and…… [Read More]. Ethics and the Law. Ethics and the Law It is morally acceptable for the law to require people to do things for their own self-development?

I believe it is morally acceptable to require people to do things for their own self development. Aspects such as making children attend school, requiring high schools to offer basic curriculum courses, or requiring systemically viable institutions to be certified, I believe, all are morally acceptable laws.

Although society overall benefits from the self-development of its own constituents, the world benefits as a more educated population continues to drive economic prosperity Berlin, Few would argue over the merits of self-development and its obvious advantages.

To whom does it NOT apply? These are good reasons for remonstrating with him, or reasoning with him, or persuading him, or entreating him, but not for compelling him, or visiting him with any evil, in case he do otherwise. To justify that, the conduct from which it is desired to deter him must be calculated to produce evil to someone else.

The only part of the conduct of any one, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others. In the part which merely concerns himself, his independence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign. On Liberty contains a rational justification of the freedom of the individual in opposition to the claims of the state to impose unlimited control, and has become a classic of libertarian philosophy.

In this essay Mill also warns of a second danger to liberty, which democracies are prone to, namely, the tyranny of the majority. In a representative democracy, if you can control the majority and get them to vote for, and elect, your candidates then you can control everyone because your candidates, once "democratically elected", will pass whatever laws are needed for this, as was done by Hitler's agents in the s in Nazi Germany and seems to be happening today in the U.

Here's what Mill writes in the Introduction to On Liberty about the tyranny of the majority: Like other tyrannies, the tyranny of the majority was at first, and is still vulgarly, held in dread, chiefly as operating through the acts of the public authorities.

But reflecting persons perceived that when society is itself the tyrant — society collectively over the separate individuals who compose it — its means of tyrannizing are not restricted to the acts which it may do by the hands of its political functionaries.

Society can and does execute its own mandates; and if it issues wrong mandates instead of right, or any mandates at all in things with which it ought not to meddle, it practices a social tyranny more formidable than many kinds of political oppression, since, though not usually upheld by such extreme penalties, it leaves fewer means of escape, penetrating much more deeply into the details of life, and enslaving the soul itself. Protection, therefore, against the tyranny of the magistrate is not enough; there needs protection also against the tyranny of the prevailing opinion and feeling, against the tendency of society to impose, by other means than civil penalties, its own ideas and practices as rules of conduct on those who dissent from them; to fetter the development and, if possible, prevent the formation of any individuality not in harmony with its ways, and compel all characters to fashion themselves upon the model of its own.

There is a limit to the legitimate interference of collective opinion with individual independence; and to find that limit, and maintain it against encroachment, is as indispensable to a good condition of human affairs as protection against political despotism.

A brief biography of Mill from Encarta ' Chapter 1 begins thus. An extract taken from the second chapter, on freedom of thought and discussion, revolving around the pursuit of truth. On Liberty John Stuart Mill Yet he was a champion of individual's rights, calling, among other things, for more power and freedom for women.

In his treatise On Liberty he argues that in the past the danger had been that monarchs held power at the expense of the common people and the struggle was one of gaining liberty by limiting such governmental power.

But now that power has largely passed into the hands of the people at large through democratic forms of government, the danger is that the majority denies liberty to individuals, whether explicitly through laws In which kind of social system does liberty thrive best — or in which kind of social system is liberty least threatened?

Some believe that liberty is is best safeguarded by democracy — but this is very doubtful, at least if democracy is taken to mean simply a system in which political representatives are elected every now and again. Voters in many Western countries are apathetic because they believe that their vote actually makes no difference. As has been said of so-called democratic elections in the U.

Whoever wins, the people lose. Neither the word "democracy" nor its derivatives occur in the U. Declaration of Independence or in the U. Yet because of an year propaganda campaign the American public has been brainwashed to believe that "democracy" was what the American Founding Fathers wished to establish on the North American continent as a model for the world.


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John Stuart Mill's Essay On Liberty - John Stuart Mill's Essay On Liberty The main theme of on liberty was the individual. Everything else, society, education,government and so forth had their basis in the individuals rights to his own liberty. Liberty is a magic concept which has inspired millions to revolt and the history of mankind is nothing but the story of liberty. The celebrated French philosopher Rousseau on the eve of the French Revolution of made a historic declaration "Man is born free but is everywhere in chains".

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Essays Although one of my primary pastimes is reading, writing is a close second. Books reveal to me the world and universe, writing helps me focus and develop my own thoughts and perspectives. Liberty is derived from the Latin word liber which means free. It is a word of negative meaning denoting absence of restraint. It is a word of negative meaning denoting absence of restraint. Its primary significance is to do what one likes, regardless of .