In freshwater lakes and rivers, the limiting nutrient element is usually phosphorus, whilst in marine waters nitrogen is often in short supply. If small amounts of nutrients enter aquatic ecosystems where they are normally limiting, primary productivity is stimulated.
The water body becomes over-enriched by excessive nutrient input and consequently polluted. Both acid rain and acid mine drainage contribute significantly to the acidification of natural waters. These two phenomena are dealt with in detail in this section. However, there are other causes of this particular type of water pollution. For example, the planting of extensive tracts of coniferous forests, usually in upland areas, results in the acidification of the soil and the waters which drain these plantations.
Organochlorines are, as name suggests, organic compounds containing chlorine. Manufactured organochlorines include a number of pesticides, for example DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs as they are known. These two groups will be considered separately, although they do share a number of important characteristics. For example, both groups are reported to have endocrine-disrupting properties. In , the first organochlorine pesticide, DDT dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane was manufactured for the Allied Forces to be used during the Second World War.
It met with unprecedented success against a number of insect-borne diseases, for example malaria in the tropics and typhus in Italy. It had many advantages; it was cheap to manufacture, persistent in the environment and could be applied from the air. The success of DDT resulted in the development and manufacture of other organochlorine pesticides, for example lindane and dieldrin.
Drilling for oils is one of the major extractive industries. Crude oil is a complex mixture of thousands of different organic molecules, mainly hydrocarbons aromatics, alkenes and cyclohexanes.
It is refined by the process of fractional distillation to yield a number of commercially important products such as petrol, diesel oil and tar.
From these different types of oil, seas and rivers are being polluted regularly. Sometime accidental spillage from oil tankers causes drastic damage to the environment through oil pollution. All types of aquatic forms of life thus face the ill-effects. Water is able to absorb large quantities of heat without appreciably increasing its own temperature or changing from its liquid sate. This high heat capacity means that it is extensively used as a coolant in many industries. The principal user of water as a coolant is the electricity generating industry.
They often discharge a huge quantity of hot water and thus causing thermal pollution. Thermal pollution affects aquatic ecosystems in a variety of ways. In general, the species composition changes as species tolerant of warmer waters replace those unable to adapt.
This transition is often accompanied by an overall decrease in species richness. For example, attached algae in heated effluents were reported to show an increase in biomass but a decrease in the number of species represented. Fluoride and Arsenic pollutants are important amongst the inorganic pollutants. If you swim in polluted water, it can cause you to develop skin diseases, reproductive problems, typhoid fever, and so on. Moreover, sometimes it can cause heavy metals or pesticide poisoning, because polluted water often contains mercury, plumbum, insecticide, herbicides, and so on TutorVista.
As it can be seen, water pollution leads to a number of serious, negative consequences. It destroys animal species that inhabit seas and oceans, and disrupts existing food chains. Water pollution also affects ecosystems in a negative way, destroying them and thus affecting the ecological situation on Earth. These two factors have an indirect, but strong effect on humanity. As for the direct effects, polluted water causes people to suffer from cholera, diphtheria, skin diseases, reproductive problems, poisoning, and so on.
All of this means that humanity should pay attention to the problem of water contamination, otherwise it will continue to severely hurt itself. Is English your native language? What is your profession? Student Teacher Writer Other. Academic Assignment Writing an Essay. Writing a Research Paper. Writing Guides for Students Writing a Memoir 2. Creative Writing Guides Writing a Song 3. Writing a Letter Writing an Evaluation Letter 3.
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Essay on Water Pollution Water covers two-thirds of the Earth’s surface, with over 97% present in the oceans and less than 1% in freshwater streams and lakes. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid form in the polar icecaps and as groundwater in aquifers (water-bearing rocks) deep underground.
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Water Pollution Essay 1 ( words) Water pollution has become a continuous increasing problem on the earth which is affecting the human and animal lives in all aspects. Water pollution is the contamination of drinking water by the poisonous pollutants generated by the human activities. Water pollution is one of the world's worst forms of pollution. For example, take a look at a glass of water. It may appear clear, but there are really millions of microscopic pollutants floating in it. Approximately 70% of the earth's surface are covered by water; water is a very dynamic system 3/5(10).
Water pollution, like other types of pollution result when an overwhelming amount of waste comes from different sources of pollutant which harmfully disrupts the balance of the ecosystem; consequently, the waste cannot be destroyed or cleaned up as quickly as produced which results in many disadvantageous to humans and animals, as well as other living organisms. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now!