That is, although Winthrop's writings illuminate his biases and assumptions, they "shape" the history of the period as well as record it. Students are generally shocked by the rigidity of Winthrop's view of the world. Their shock may be addressed by consulting outside sources e. However, it might be wise to note, as well, how our twentieth-century notions of what is fair and unfair can sometimes impose themselves upon the cultural environment Winthrop was operating within.
Winthrop and the Puritans should be approached not only as philosophical, political, and religious figures, but also as real people who struggled daily against nature, hunger, and disease.
Students are often curious about the distinctions between the Covenant of Works, the Covenant of Grace, and the Elect. You might explore the notion of community and social structures and the role of the individual in these structures, or you could discuss the Bible as a typological model for the Puritans, as well as Puritan conceptions of original depravity, limited atonement, grace, and predestination.
Certainly, based on the selections in this anthology, it would be fruitful to focus on the Hutchinson controversy and its implications for the Puritan oligarchy. Examine the early Puritans' conception of liberty and its inextricable connections with their obligation to God. Likewise, the notion of a "city upon a hill" and the Puritans' link between America and the "new Israel" is important. You could discuss as well the providential interpretation of events and the nature of hierarchy in the Puritan community.
Winthrop had training as a lawyer; the style and form of A Modell of Christian Charity reflects this. Likewise, the entire self-reflexive nature of the Journal lends itself to examination: Who was Winthrop's audience? Where does the Journal belong in the convention of the personal narrative or spiritual autobiography? What was his purpose for writing? Recent examinations of A Modell of Christian Charity suggest that the sermon was not only intended for those who would soon be settling in America, but also for those who were growing weary and by implication becoming disruptive during the long voyage aboard the Arbella.
In what ways was Winthrop's audience especially in the Journal himself? These led to trading ventures with other Puritans on Barbados , a source of cotton , and with the neighboring French colony of Acadia. French Acadia, covering the eastern half of present-day Maine, as well as New Brunswick and Nova Scotia , was at the time embroiled in a minor civil war between competing administrators. In June la Tour came to Boston and requested military assistance against assaults by d'Aulnay. In , with Winthrop again in the governor's seat, d'Aulnay appeared in Boston and demanded reparations for damage done by the English volunteers.
Winthrop placated the French governor with the gift of a sedan chair , originally given to him by an English privateer. In addition to his responsibilities in the colonial government, Winthrop was a significant property owner. The farm at Ten Hills suffered from poor oversight on Winthrop's part — the steward of the farm made questionable financial deals that in the early s caused Winthrop to have a cash crisis. The colony insisted on paying him his salary something he had regularly refused to accept in the past , as well as his out-of-pocket expenses while engaged in official duties.
His wife Margaret arrived on the second voyage of the Lyon in , but their baby daughter, Anne, died during the crossing. Though rarely published and relatively unappreciated for his literary contribution during his time, Winthrop spent his life continually producing written accounts of historical events and religious manifestations. Winthrop's major contributions to the literary world were A Modell of Christian Charity and The History of New England —; also known as The Journal of John Winthrop , which remained unpublished until the late 18th century.
John Winthrop wrote and delivered the lay sermon that would be called A Modell of Christian Charity either before the crossing to North America or while en route. He used the phrase "city upon a hill" derived from the Bible 's Sermon on the Mount: A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden" to characterize the colonists' endeavour as part of a special pact with God to create a holy community.
If they did so, God would "make us a prayse and glory, that man shall say of succeeding plantacions: Winthrop's sermon is often characterized as a forerunner to the concept of American exceptionalism.
The work was not published until the nineteenth century, although it was known, and circulated in manuscript before that time. Starting with the voyage across the Atlantic and continuing through Winthrop's time in Massachusetts, he kept a journal of his life and experiences.
Originally written in three notebooks, his account has been acknowledged as the "central source for the history of Massachusetts in the s and s". The third notebook, long thought lost, was rediscovered in , and the complete journals were published in and by James Savage as The History of New England from — By John Winthrop, Esq.
First Governor of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay. From his Original Manuscripts. The second notebook was destroyed in a fire at Savage's office in ; the other two volumes now belong to the Massachusetts Historical Society. The journal began as a nearly day-to-day recounting of the ocean crossing. As time progressed he made entries less frequently, and wrote them up at a greater length, so that by the s the work began to take the shape of a history.
He also wrote profound insights into the nature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and nearly all important events of the day. Gradually, the focus of his writings shifted from his personal observations to broader spiritual ideologies and behind-the-scenes views of political matters.
Winthrop's earliest publication was likely The Humble Request of His Majesties Loyal Subjects London, , which defended the emigrants' physical separation from England and reaffirmed their loyalty to the Crown and Church of England. In addition to his more famous works, Winthrop produced a number of writings, both published and unpublished. While living in England, Winthrop articulated his belief "in the validity of experience" in a private religious journal, known as his Experiencia.
The work was first published in London in The evidence it presented was seen by supporters of Congregationalism as evidence of its worth, and by English opponents as evidence of its failings. Vane's opponents sought to "tie Toleration round the neck of Independency, stuff the two struggling monsters into one sack, and sink them to the bottom of the sea. According to biographer Francis Bremer, Winthrop's writings echoed those of other Puritans: Winthrop's reference to the "city upon a hill" in A Modell of Christian Charity has become an enduring symbol in American political discourse.
Winthrop's reputation suffered in the late 19th and early 20th century, when critics like Nathaniel Hawthorne and H. Mencken pointed out the negative aspects of Puritan rule, leading to modern assessments of him as a "lost Founding Father". Political scientist Matthew Holland argues that Winthrop "is at once a significant founding father of America's best and worst impulses", with his calls for charity and public participation offset by rigid intolerance, exclusionism and judgmentalism.
Winthrop strongly believed that civil liberty was "the proper end and object of authority", meaning it was the duty of the government to be selfless for the people and promote justice instead of promoting the general welfare. Despite the criticism, modern politicians as diverse as John F. John Winthrop's descendants number thousands today. In addition to his son John, who was the first governor of the Saybrook Colony , later generations of his family continued to play an active role in New England politics well into the 19th century.
He is also the namesake of three squares in Boston, Cambridge, and Brookline, [ citation needed ] and the Winthrop Building on Water Street in Boston, one of the city's first skyscrapers, was built on the site of one of his homes.
For other people named John Winthrop, see John Winthrop disambiguation. Model of Christian Charity. To avoid confusion with dates in the Gregorian calendar , then in use in other parts of Europe, dates between January and March were often written with both years. Dates in this article are in the Julian calendar unless otherwise noted.
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The States History Company. The Myth of American Exceptionalism. Holland, Matthew Scott A History of New England. Jehlen, Myra; Warner, Michael The English Literatures of America, — Boston and New York: Kennedy, Sheila; Schultz, David Constitutional and Ethical Foundations. The Forgotten History of Slavery in the North.
S January 18, Mayo, Lawrence Shaw The Winthrop Family in America. Moore, Jacob Bailey Morison, Samuel Eliot .
Builders of the Bay Colony. History as a Story, the Story as History. University of Wisconsin Press. Osgood, Herbert Levi The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Pease, Donald E The New American Exceptionalism. University of Minnesota Press. Sedgwick, Catharine Maria Hope Leslie, or, Early Times in the Massachusetts. Stanhope, Edward; Bacon, Edwin Monroe Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, — The Journal of John Winthrop, — The edition containing two volumes of Winthrop's journal.
The History of New England from to With Notes by J. Savage, Volumes 1 and 2. Dudley Haynes Vane Winthrop T. Dudley Bellingham Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Governor's Council J. Lieutenant Governors of Massachusetts. Dudley Ludlow Bellingham Winthrop T. Dudley Bellingham Endecott Winthrop T. Lincoln Adams Gill S. Lincoln Cobb Gray W. Coolidge Sullivan Whittier R. The Dudley—Winthrop family tree. Erasmus Five solae Eucharist Calvinist v.
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John Winthrop (b. –d. ) was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was first chosen by the investors of the Massachusetts Bay Company in and after the settlement of the colony in was selected by the freemen to serve as governor in annual elections through and.
John Winthrop: biography 12 January /8 - 26 March It was unclear to Winthrop when his wife would come over; she was pregnant and due to give birth in April , near the fleet's departure time.
John Winthrop () Contributing Editor: Nicholas D. Rombes, Jr. Classroom Issues and Strategies. The sweeping nature of the journal encompasses social, political, economic, and "daily survival" issues. Sep 07, · 1. The first thing I noticed about the writings of John Winthrop and William Bradford was how different both of their writing styles were. Winthrop's writings were more of a set of regulations, guidelines, and expectations, while Bradford's were based more upon personal accounts. Overall, I surprisingly enjoyed Bradford's writings .
John Winthrop describes life in Boston, A Spotlight on a Primary Source by John Winthrop. Writing in from Boston, less than four years after the city had been founded, Winthrop described a population of 4, settlers "well provided of all necessarys." The American Indian population did not fare as well. Essays and criticism on Francis J. Bremer's John Winthrop - Winthrop, John (Vol. 31) Anderson traces Winthrop's idea of community as evidenced in his writings and compares it with those of.