For example, qualitative research could provide details about the experience of online learning environments from the perspective of students and teachers, thus generating ideas on how to promote innovation that enhances e-learning efficacy. Towards the goal of providing a deeper understanding of the value that qualitative research can offer to e-learning research, Agostinho analyzed an e-learning study in terms of its methodological structure using an intrinsic case study approach Creswell, Hanson, Plano, and Morales, ,…… [Read More].
Business Qualitative Research Aims to. While the debate between the two is hot, and it seems quantitative research is the more valid, perhaps the best solution is to combine the two methods to come up with a more extensive and valid form of research. Combining facts and figures with interviews, objects, and images is a good way to see all sides of an issue or research subject.
Instead of debating which type of research method is the most effective, it would serve researchers better to merge their ideas and methods to create a more well rounded type of research that could give more insight into a wider variety of topics.
It seems that any kind of detailed and well-planned research can be valid, especially if the researcher knows how to define their research and understands what they are hoping to accomplish with the research. Thus, either of these methods would serve many different types of…… [Read More]. Barclays Quantitative and Qualitative Research. The year, as predicted was a particularly good year for Hansabank.
Needless to say, the market research before entering potential markets is critical in predicting how much of a gamble is involved in that market penetration. The market research prior to the entry into the Nordic and Baltic markets was extensive and meticulous and paid off nicely the next year in Performance During the ecession Even good companies have their…… [Read More].
Alternative Types of Qualitative Research. Beyond Creswell's Five Approaches According to Creswell, there are five basic approaches to qualitative research: However, not all theorists classify qualitative research according to these categories. Some have a separate category for pure qualitative 'history' approaches whereby the focus of the study is upon a specific past event or phenomenon.
This approach uses primary sources like letters, newspapers of the period, journals, interviews, recordings, and other types of information accumulated by past researchers.
It is used to "describe and examine events of the past to understand the present and anticipate potential future effects" Qualitative research designs, , UMSL.
Another approach to qualitative research is symbolic interactionism or participant observation, in which the researcher becomes 'part' of the research process and data-gathering. Participant observers are trained in…… [Read More].
Coding and Data Analysis Process in Qualitative esearch "Coding is the process of combing the data for themes, ideas and categories and then marking similar passages of text with a code label so that they can easily be retrieved at a later stage for further comparison and analysis. Coding is a critical aspect of qualitative research as without effective coding there is nothing but a sea of potentially interesting but not necessarily useable data.
It could also be argued that during the coding process analysis is already taking place, given that qualitative research is empirical and proceeds 'from the ground up: Some codes before the…… [Read More].
However, the authors do focus on patient-centered care within an evidence-based practice framework. The authors use a focus group model, and operationalize the definition of the term focus group. Furthermore, the focus group was selected for this qualitative research design because it permitted 'interaction and discussion" among the participants, leading to "rich data related to the learning needs of older adults living in…… [Read More]. Human trafficking in the voices of its victims In the recent debate over illegal immigration, a crucial component of the issue is often forgotten, namely the persistence of human trafficking amongst the flow of illegal bodies across the nation's borders.
According to the ICE Immigrations and Customs Enforcement, "in its worst manifestation, human trafficking is akin to modern-day slavery. Victims pay to be illegally transported into the United States only to find themselves in the thrall of traffickers. They are forced into prostitution, involuntary labor and other forms of servitude to repay debts -- often entry in the United States.
In certain cases, the victims are mere children. They find themselves surrounded by an unfamiliar culture and language without identification documents, fearing for their lives and the lives of their families" Human trafficking, , ICE. In other scenarios, the situation may be more ambiguous…… [Read More]. Data-Gathering in Qualitative Research. Preventing Data Loss and Data Overload A qualitative researcher may have to organize, document, and track large and diverse amounts of information.
A researcher has interviewed 12 participants thus far and has decided to follow up with 4 of them for further interviews. Unfortunately, the researcher has placed all of the contact information on sticky notes around the computer and now cannot find the contact information for 2 of the participants.
Moreover, the research supervisor is asking the researcher for a specific piece of interview transcript from one of the participants. These transcripts are all handwritten in a notebook, and the researcher has 15 unmarked notebooks where interview transcripts reside. Would you like to be the researcher in this position?
Can you think of potential problems with this organizational strategy or lack thereof? In this Discussion, you will consider data organization strategies so that you will not…… [Read More]. Qualitative vs Quantitative Methods in Education Research. Quantitative Methods in Education esearch All educational and other research falls into two broad methodological categories: Various opinions exist, depending on one's viewpoint, experience, or preference, about which of the two major approaches to education research, qualitative or quantitative, is better.
In my own opinion, neither quantitative research in education nor qualitative research in education is inherently "better" or "worse"; one's research method must spring from the design and content of the project itself. To decide on one research method or another, based on other reasons, seems to me both artificial and possibly harmful to the project. I believe that both of these methods are inherently, equally useful depending…… [Read More].
Qualitative Research on Human Trafficking. An in-depth interview is the appropriate qualitative data collection method, as the issue of human trafficking is a very sensitive issue for its victims, and one that requires deeper discovery, thus the inclusion of interviews of experts on the issue.
Two in-depth interview guides will therefore be developed for the study: From these tools, the researcher is expecting that themes relevant to the focus of the two informant groups will emerge. From the victims, a deeper understanding…… [Read More]. Quantitative Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation.
Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research. Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world.
Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns. There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…… [Read More].
Qualitative Research Assessment and Method. Interview Method Identify the data collection techniques used by Lenski et al. The researchers collected data by "learning about ethnography, conducting participation observation, making descriptive observations," conducting neighborhood observations, school site observations and interviewing participants. Given the design of this study, do you think the students were participant observers or nonparticipant observers?
The students were participant observers because students and teachers were engaged in activities together. How does this qualitative design differ from the quantitative designs that we have studied? This design does not collect or analyze statistical data.
The main method of data collection is the interview method. This is a one-on-one process of speaking to participants, asking questions, and receiving in-depth answers. The design is a type of examination: Health and Safety Questionnaire Qualitative research questions regarding health and policy issues are difficult to put together in a comprehensive fashion. For this reason, it is necessary to have a brief literature review to see how some scholars have dealt with this problem.
Then it will be possible to put together a properly structured interview. Then, the author structured a sample interview. Qualitative Interview Methodology Literature In a journal article in the International Journal for Quality in Health Care, the authors put together a 32 item checklist to help set up competent focus group interviews with consolidated criteria for reporting The authors performed their comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, CINAHL, Medline,, systematic reviews of studies of a qualitative nature, reviewer or author guidelines of major medical journals and also reference lists of the relevant journals and other publications for existing checklists that are widely used to assess qualitative…… [Read More].
Qualitative Quantitative and Mixed Methods Research. Mixed Methods Research Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed.
These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research Creswell, In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject s.
This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions.
Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon Denscombe, This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective Bryman, In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…… [Read More].
Research Approaches in Education. Educational Leadership Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society.
Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown Lewis, The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
Introduction The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More].
Research Paper Topic and Annotated Bibliography. Selection of Research Paper Topic An analysis of the link between hopefulness, quality of life QOL and internalized stigma among autistic kids' parents is the objective of the current research. Autism impacts the patient as well as their parents, who require wide-ranging support services. Therefore, when catering to special needs kids and developing interventions and initiatives for autism-diagnosed kids, mental healthcare providers and social workers need to consider parental mental health status.
Stigma internalization represents a process wherein patients' family members might exhibit elevated negative emotions, withdrawal from society, negative self-assessment and…… [Read More]. Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods.
This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches.
Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data. Research Assumptions Regarding Human Trafficking. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic human trafficking to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men.
But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms.
For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…… [Read More]. Research Proposal for Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing. Sustainability Perspective Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs.
Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them.
Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine.
The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…… [Read More]. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition Rosch et al.
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory investigating causal relationships? The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…… [Read More]. PICOT Format In the United States, The COP Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of top serious diseases that places a great burden on patients and healthcare system because it is associated with high rate of outpatients visit, hospitalization and readmission.
The UK is facing similar problem where 1. However, the prevalence of the COP disease is likely to rise because of an increase in the ageing population. The telehealth is an…… [Read More]. Qualitative language, that is language that is not quantifiable and thus dwells in the realm of the sort of academic criticism and research "that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification," remains a critical mode of expression, even in areas of study of the social sciences where "hard data" is a must.
Qualitative analysis results in a different type of knowledge than does quantitative inquiry. But one must take precautions to make sure that the subjective nature of qualitative language does not impede, but rather facilitates understanding of a subject. To take just one example of how the qualitative association of words, can skew…… [Read More].
Qualitative Versus Quantitative Analysis. Market researcher, there are a number of different research methods available. The first basic classification for research methods is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research.
Quantitative research is based on numbers, while qualitative is not. This difference has implications in particular with respect to the way the data is analyzed, but there are also implications for how it is gathered as well. Examples of qualitative research methods are interviews, focus groups, surveys and reviews of primary source documents.
Quantitative methods can also be done with surveys and interviews depending on the question, but also can reflect on market data such as sales and market share OAU. The reason market researchers use these different methodologies is that they are best used in different situations. For example, the techniques that are used in quantitative research are discrete and often are replicable. The downside to quantitative methods is that there is…… [Read More].
Education Ndunda defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined.
Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions.
In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information.
The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23 , This particular research piece is quantitative in nature. The basic analysis element in a study of this kind as Keele points out is statistical analyses and numbers. This is more so the case given that it generates data that could be transmuted into operational statistics, as it seeks to quantify the problem i.
I selected this topic due to its relevance to clinical practice. This is particularly the case given that there are very few published studies that have…… [Read More]. Self-Analysis of Research Bias. Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample. An instrument may be…… [Read More].
Analyzing Qualitative Research Paper. Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental health problems in the United States. These two conditions affect a significant percentage of the United States population, meaning that billions of dollars are spent every year to care for the conditions and related problems.
Additionally, depression and anxiety are behind the significant declines in patient social functioning and well-being. The two disorders have also been found to cause great suffering and pain to both patients and their close friends and family. In spite of the fact that proven treatments exist, both conditions remain undertreated izvi, The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disorders are made even more difficult by the fact that the two disorders share many signs and symptoms.
Role of Research Problem in Choosing an. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study.
The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities. After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More].
Descrptive Design esearch Method and Design Proposal A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning.
In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments Hodkinson, Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More].
Difficulties Empirical research is necessarily designed to provide a workable framework through which a researcher may test a hypothesized explanation for observable phenomena, but the two primary branches of scientific inquiry differ greatly in terms of the analytical scope and style employed throughout an experiment.
While quantitative research is capable of recording, sorting and analyzing voluminous amounts of numerical data, from credit card usage rates for various tax brackets to the pace of population acceleration within a given demographic, this methodology is left lacking when researchers seek to explain the trends and configurations they have identified.
In order to develop informed explanations of behavioral patterns, emotional capacity, artistic inclination, and any number of similarly intangible phenomena, the use of qualitative research must be employed to ascertain the motivational processes used to determine basic decision making. Although the traditional quantitative method of research is more widely known by laymen, with surveys,…… [Read More]. Justification for Mixed Methods Research. Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches.
When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More]. Mixed Methods Research Study Each of the. Guidelines for Qualitative Papers.
Fitness for purpose Are the methods of the research appropriate to the nature of the question s being asked, i. Are the settings, groups or individuals being examined of a type which cannot be pre-selected, or the possible outcomes not specified or hypothesised in advance? Methodology and methods All papers must include a dedicated methods section which specifies, as appropriate, the sample recruitment strategy, sample size, and analytical strategy.
Principles of selection Qualitative research is often based on or includes non-probability sampling. The selection of these should be theoretically justified e. If authors were not required to obtain ethical approval as is the case in some countries or unable to obtain attain ethical approval as sometimes occurs in resource-poor settings they should explain this. Please anonymise this information as appropriate in the manuscript, and give the information when asked during submission.
Procedures for securing informed consent should be provided Any ethical concerns that arose during the research should be discussed. Analysis The process of analysis should be made as transparent as possible notwithstanding the conceptual and theoretical creativity that typically characterises qualitative research. For example How was the analysis conducted How were themes, concepts and categories generated from the data Whether analysis was computer assisted and, if so, how Who was involved in the analysis and in what manner Assurance of analytic rigour.
For example, have they examined their own role, possible bias, and influence on the research reflexivity? Other forms of traditionally non-numerical writing, such as fiction and poetry, are seldom labeled as "qualitative writing. The term is, therefore, most commonly used to refer to formal research-based writing, as the division between qualitative and quantitative data is very important in the context of research. Building the writing skills necessary to objectively and clearly express non-numerical research findings is of the utmost importance to those who commonly conduct non-numerical research.
One of our editors will review your suggestion and make changes if warranted. Note that depending on the number of suggestions we receive, this can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days. Thank you for helping to improve wiseGEEK! Watch the Did-You-Know slideshow. Daniel Liden Edited By: Jenn Walker Last Modified Date: This Day in History. The Star Spangled Banner poem was written.
A Critique of a Qualitative Research Paper - This paper will critique the qualitative research paper, “The use of grammatical terminology in the second language classroom: A qualitative study of teachers’ practices and cognitions” by Simon Borg ().
BASIC CONCEPTS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (An Essay) By Deborah Sitorus One of the ways to gain knowledge is by carrying out some research. As what Zacharia () stated that in daily life most people conduct research to gain knowledge.
Mar 29, · This Essay will compare and contrast two different research methods that are qualitative and quantitative methods endeavouring to highlight differences and similarities between them, and providing example how they are applied through airline industry. In this essay I am going to express my understanding of the key principles of qualitative research. In order to understand the nature of qualitative research.
Qualitative papers base their findings on textual analysis of observations, while quantitative studies rely on statistical analysis of numbers for their explanations. Features Qualitative essays are more subjective and focus on the researcher’s own inferences drawn from his study of the data. The word qualitative implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and on processes and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured [if measured at .