Here, she uses parenthetical insertions [in square parenthesis] to denote a passing of time — 10 years — and significant events and interrupt the narrative in each section. What, people said, could have been more fitting? And, they added, how beautiful she looked!
How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable, Seem to me all the uses of this world! Enjambment is an interesting technique. Visually, this gives the sense that the poem flows between lines. However, in utterance, enjambment leads to a pause between lines when spoken aloud. Composers often use this to disrupt the flow or a poem or contrast distinct images or ideas.
This use of enjambment conveys a romantic image of a night sky only to contrast it with the macabre image of an unconscious patient about to undergo surgery.
This is jarring contrast further emphasized by the rejet. Euphemism Mild expression used to replace a harsh one. These devices have a powerful impact as they work on our senses to strengthen the subject matter of the text. Form Purpose and features of a text influence its construction and will suggest its structure. Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is simply an allusion to something that will happen later in the narrative. Flashback A flashback is a scene appearing in a text that occurs earlier than the main narrative.
Flashbacks can have many effects. In this scene, a traumatic dream causes a flashback in the protagonist Winston Smith. The flashback concerns painful memories involving his family.
The spontaneous nature of this flashback suggests that Winston has gone to lengths to repress the traumatic memory involving his family. It is also a narrative device. Sentence fragments are sentences that cannot stand on their own. Fragmentation will usually convey notions of destruction and decay, so when interpreting instances of it think about what sorts of themes your author is exploring. Humour Incongruity, parody, satire, exaggeration, irony, puns etc.
Hyperbole A literary term for exaggeration. This is a simple technique, so refer to it sparingly. Icons A single person, object or image that represents complex ideas and feelings. Imagery Vivid pictures created by words. Imagery is language that evokes one of the five senses, and you must always refer to the specific kind. Imperative Voice or Mood Forceful use of the verb at the start of sentence or phrase. The imperative mood is one of the grammatical moods in English.
If a speaker uses the imperative, then he or she may be an authority figure. A man named Mr. Charrington, whom Winston had believed was a gentle shopkeeper, turns out to be a member of the secret police.
Intertextuality When a text makes a reference to other texts. This reference can be an explicit quotation or implied and inferred by allusion. This is an ancient technique, and it has a number of meanings. It can also be used to disorientate. Irony Gap between what is said and what is meant. See, what a grace was seated on this brow? We expect a high register in formal contexts, while we might expect lower registers in more familiar contexts.
The common registers we refer to are: Consider the following greetings:. In a linear narrative, authors simply tell the reader what happens in their story chronologically. The linear narrative of a bank robbery might begin with the bandits approaching in their car and move through all the noteworthy incidents until their inevitable capture and arrest. Metaphor Comparison of 2 objects where one becomes another — adds further layers of meaning about the object being compared.
Metaphor is one of the most fundamental figures of speech, and indeed aspects of language itself. Literary texts are typically dense in metaphor.
In the cases of writers such as Shakespeare, it is impossible to understand the text without constantly unpacking metaphors. Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a micher and eat blackberries? Shall the son of England prove a thief and take purses? The Kremlin, for example, has long been conventionally used as a metonym for the Russian government.
Modality The certainty which a speaker employs in their language. Parody Conscious imitation for a satiric purpose. Parody is a style that mocks the serious manner and characteristic features of literary works through imitation. Parodies work by exaggerating certain traits common to the work. This tract is clearly a parody of political writing and in particular the theoretical writing of communist revolutionaries like Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin. Pathetic Fallacy Pathetic fallacy is the attribution of human emotions to nonhuman objects, particularly objects of nature.
Note that the term should just apply to the ascription of emotions, not thoughts or other properties. The term was invented by the English writer John Ruskin, and is widely used in literature. Day after day, a vast heavy veil had been driving over London from the East, and it drove still, as if in the East there were an Eternity of cloud and wind.
So furious had been the gusts, that high buildings in town had had the lead stripped off their roofs; and in the country, trees had been torn up, and sails of windmills carried away; and gloomy accounts had come in from the coast, of shipwreck and death. Violent blasts of rain had accompanied these rages of wind, and the day just closed as I sat down to read had been the worst of all. Some texts might shift between different perspectives throughout. That is, the use of a longer expression for an idea where a shorter one might suffice.
Periphrasis is widespread, and often quite significant as a technique. Writers sometimes use periphrasis to refer to an object or person in a more creative way, or to avoid repetition. Inanimate objects take on a life. Personification is usually well-understood by students. It is a specific kind of metaphor in which human attributes are applied to nonhumans. Like other forms of metaphor, it is widely used in literature, as well as daily life.
Perspective A particular way of looking at individuals, issues, events, texts, facts etc. Plosive consonants Harsh sounds in a sentence or phrase. While this can be used to draw attention to specific things in the sentence, more often than not it is purely an aesthetic device. Use this technique with caution. Reference Reference is a very broad term. It simply means mentioning, usually clearly and unambiguously, something else, whether it is a historical event, another author, another text, or even a set of ideas.
The rejet is the disjunction between the appearance of a poem flowing between lines on a page and the pause that speakers unconsciously insert between lines when first reading a poem aloud.
Repetition The repetition of words or syntax order of words for emphasis or persuasion. Repetition does matter, but it is an extremely easy technique to identify, so you should refer to it sparingly, and always analyse it further. Never point out that repetition of a term emphasises the term. Instead, think critically about what the repetition actually suggests.
A famous example of repetition comes at the end of T. This is the way the world ends This is the way the world ends This is the way the world ends Not with a bang but a whimper. To begin with, what is the idea? Repetition here has to be interpreted in the context of the central themes of the poem.
You could begin by thinking about how this repetition relates to the cycles of revolution alluded to elsewhere in the poem, or to the scientific theories, including the theory of entropy, Eliot appears to explore. Representation How a composer conveys meaning through textual features.
This is a key concept in works of art. You can read more about processes of representation here. Rhyme Rhyme is one of the most familiar techniques, and there is little to be said about it. Be careful in attributing meaning to rhyme in verse. In satire, common human behaviours, beliefs, and vices are held up to shame and scorn.
Satire is often considered a high form of comedy. Satire is often employed for biting social or political commentary. Many critics argue that the character of Falstaff is a satirical representation of Sir John Oldcastle, a Lollard the pre-cursor to protestants who was executed for treason and heresy. Setting Location of a story — internal and external. This is often used to create a sinister or sensuous tone or mood. King Hamlet uses simile to emphasise his sufferings in hell, declaring to Hamlet that the details of his tortures would: Symbolism is a very important technique, and in some texts, it is the central technique.
A symbol is any visual object that by convention signifies something else, whether it be another object, an idea, a process, or an emotion. The letters of the alphabet are therefore symbols, in that they represent speech sounds. Although all language is symbolic, literary symbolism usually refers more specifically to the use of objects to represent ideas and emotions. The Eliot poems set for study in Module B are all heavily symbolic. A first step in interpreting the symbolism is to think about the ideas the objects conventionally imply.
This suggests the poem might be concerned with decline and decay. Syntax — sentence structure Syntax is one of the main components of language. It refers to the organisation of words and phrases in a sentence, as well as their structural relations. If I swap the roles, the nouns of English syntax change the meaning of the sentence: Some strategies you can take to assess this are:.
Textual Integrity The organic unit of a text. Its use of universal themes. This is an essential part of Year 11 and Year 12 Module B. You can find a detailed explanation of Textual Integrity in this post. Theme Message or moral of a story — makes us ponder bigger issues in life. Tone The way composer or character feels — conveyed by word choice.
Tone is a very common technique and useful to discuss in your responses. There are many different ways to describe the tone of a text. Here is an extensive list of tones employed in texts. Word choice or Diction Emotive, forceful, factual, descriptive, blunt, graphic, disturbing, informative etc. Zoomorphism The attribution of animal properties to non-animals.
This technique is more common than many people expect. If you want to take your analysis further and expand your awareness of literary techniques, read the blog post: When you write an essay identifying the techniques used by a composer, you need to explain how that technique is creating meaning in the text. Use the Matrix Textual Analysis Planner to Analyse your English texts and produce insightful notes for your next assessment task.
This style of writing is used to immerse the readers in the story, allowing them to create a vivid mental picture of the setting in their minds. For example, a line from a descriptive story might read, "He was 6'4, with deep blue eyes, chestnut brown hair and a bright white smile. When using a first-person writing technique, the writer is able to incorporate his own ideas into the story. Instead of just presenting the facts, the writer can let his own opinions come out in the writing.
For example, a story written in a first-person technique would have the word "I" worked in throughout the text. A narrative writing style tells a story. The writer introduces different characters and a setting to the readers, while keeping his or her own voice silent.
Narrative stories present a problem that is played out and eventually solved. One of the most common examples of a narrative is a movie script, but narratives are also frequently used in short stories as well.
In a persuasive writing style, the author tries to change the reader's mind on a certain topic or issue. Writers present facts supporting their opinions and try to convince the reader to join in their beliefs. An example of this is often seen in newspaper and magazine columns, or in political speeches. A story written in a subjective writing technique displays facts from both sides of an issue or subject. The writer is able to use first-person terms such as the word "I", but does not choose one side to support.
Writers simply list the pros and cons of the subject so the readers can develop their own informed opinions. Newspaper articles are often written in a subjective style.
Creative writing could be “defined” broadly as the pursuit of artistic ends through the written word. Fiction, non-fiction, poetry, creative non-fiction, prose poem, memoir—the possibilities for the form that your writing, and thus your message, may take are as diverse and numerous as there are writers writing.
actually write like this (Shakespeare included). Writing begins with the process of compiling information, evidence, and sketchy ideas. The next step in the writing process is to take that information and begin to form it into connections, arguments, and more polished prose that will lead you into the drafting process.
Developing Writing Writing Skills Practice Book for EFL Patricia Wilcox Peterson Originally published in , Materials Development and Review Branch. List of Writing Techniques. Good writing comes from the creativity inside you, making it hard to teach. But once your creative juices are flowing, writing techniques can act as the foundations for your work. There are a range of techniques available to writers that serve many different purposes, some help you.
Examples of Thesis Statements with Controlling Ideas The effects of rise in oil prices will slow down economic development. Globalization of trade will spur economic. Guide to Effective Writing Strategies An Online Resource Created by the Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium hlcss.ml Authored by: suggestions and see which technique or combination of techniques works best for you. Understand Your Assignment Read your assignment carefully. Don’t assume that every teacher expects .