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The remaining positions are filled by candidates nominally without party affiliation. Other political parties campaign and raise finances internationally, while activity within Cuba by opposition groups is minimal. Cuba is considered an authoritarian regime according to the Democracy Index  and Freedom in the World survey. After Fidel Castro died on 25 November , the Cuban government declared a nine-day mourning period. During the mourning period Cuban citizens were prohibited from playing loud music, partying, and drinking alcohol.
The country is subdivided into 15 provinces and one special municipality Isla de la Juventud. These were formerly part of six larger historical provinces: The present subdivisions closely resemble those of the Spanish military provinces during the Cuban Wars of Independence, when the most troublesome areas were subdivided. The provinces are divided into municipalities. In , the European Union EU accused the Cuban government of "continuing flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms".
Cuba had the second-highest number of imprisoned journalists of any nation in China had the highest according to various sources, including the Committee to Protect Journalists and Human Rights Watch. Cuban dissidents face arrest and imprisonment. In the s, Human Rights Watch reported that Cuba's extensive prison system, one of the largest in Latin America, consists of 40 maximum-security prisons, 30 minimum-security prisons, and over work camps.
In July , the unofficial Cuban Human Rights Commission said there were political prisoners in Cuba, a fall from at the start of the year. The head of the commission stated that long prison sentences were being replaced by harassment and intimidation. Cuba has conducted a foreign policy that is uncharacteristic of such a minor, developing country. Cuba supported Algeria in —,  and sent tens of thousands of troops to Angola during the Angolan Civil War.
They agreed to release political prisoners and the United States began the process of creating an embassy in Havana. All law enforcement agencies are maintained under Cuba's Ministry of the Interior, which is supervised by the Revolutionary Armed Forces.
In Cuba, citizens can receive police assistance by dialing "" on their telephones. The Cuban government also has an agency called the Intelligence Directorate that conducts intelligence operations and maintains close ties with the Russian Federal Security Service.
From until the late s, Soviet military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities. After the loss of Soviet subsidies, Cuba scaled down the numbers of military personnel, from , in to about 60, in The Cuban state claims to adhere to socialist principles in organizing its largely state-controlled planned economy. Most of the means of production are owned and run by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Recent years have seen a trend toward more private sector employment.
Cuba has a dual currency system, whereby most wages and prices are set in Cuban pesos CUP , while the tourist economy operates with Convertible pesos CUC , set at par with the US dollar. Before Fidel Castro's revolution, Cuba was one of the most advanced and successful countries in Latin America. Cuba ranked 5th in the hemisphere in per capita income, 3rd in life expectancy, 2nd in per capita ownership of automobiles and telephones, and 1st in the number of television sets per inhabitant.
Cuba also ranked 11th in the world in the number of doctors per capita. Several private clinics and hospitals provided services for the poor. Cuba's income distribution compared favorably with that of other Latin American societies. However, income inequality was profound between city and countryside, especially between whites and blacks.
Cubans lived in abysmal poverty in the countryside. According to PBS, a thriving middle class held the promise of prosperity and social mobility. After the Cuban revolution and before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba depended on Moscow for substantial aid and sheltered markets for its exports. The loss of these subsidies sent the Cuban economy into a rapid depression known in Cuba as the Special Period. Cuba took limited free market-oriented measures to alleviate severe shortages of food, consumer goods, and services.
These steps included allowing some self-employment in certain retail and light manufacturing sectors, the legalization of the use of the US dollar in business, and the encouragement of tourism. It is widely viewed that the embargo hurt the Cuban economy. Cuba's leadership has called for reforms in the country's agricultural system. The reforms aim to expand land use and increase efficiency. In [update] , Cubans were allowed to build their own houses. On 2 August , The New York Times reported that Cuba reaffirmed its intent to legalize "buying and selling" of private property before the year's end.
As a member of the Cubasolar Group, there was also a mention of 10 additional plants in Cuba's natural resources include sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus fruits, coffee , beans, rice, potatoes, and livestock. Cuba is also a major producer of refined cobalt , a by-product of nickel mining. In , Cuba started to test-drill these locations for possible exploitation.
Tourism was initially restricted to enclave resorts where tourists would be segregated from Cuban society, referred to as "enclave tourism" and "tourism apartheid". Cuba has tripled its market share of Caribbean tourism in the last decade; [ when? The medical tourism sector caters to thousands of European, Latin American, Canadian, and American consumers every year. A recent study indicates that Cuba has a potential for mountaineering activity, and that mountaineering could be a key contributor to tourism, along with other activities, e.
Promoting these resources could contribute to regional development, prosperity, and well-being. The Cuban Justice minister downplays allegations of widespread sex tourism.
Prison sentences range from 7 to 25 years. Some tourist facilities were extensively damaged on 8 September when Hurricane Irma hit the island. Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the northern Caribbean Sea at the confluence with the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
Cuba is the principal island, surrounded by four smaller groups of islands: With the entire island south of the Tropic of Cancer , the local climate is tropical, moderated by northeasterly trade winds that blow year-round. The temperature is also shaped by the Caribbean current, which brings in warm water from the equator. This makes the climate of Cuba warmer than that of Hong Kong , which is at around the same latitude as Cuba but has a subtropical rather than a tropical climate.
In general with local variations , there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that Cuba sits across the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico combine to make the country prone to frequent hurricanes.
These are most common in September and October. Hospitals, warehouses and factories were damaged; much of the north coast was without electricity. By that time, nearly a million people, including tourists, had been evacuated. Sections of the capital had been flooded. Cuba signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June , and became a party to the convention on 8 March The revision comprises an action plan with time limits for each item, and an indication of the governmental body responsible for delivery.
That document contains virtually no information about biodiversity. However, the country's fourth national report to the CBD contains a detailed breakdown of the numbers of species of each kingdom of life recorded from Cuba, the main groups being: As elsewhere in the world, vertebrate animals and flowering plants are well documented, so the recorded numbers of species are probably close to the true numbers.
For most or all other groups, the true numbers of species occurring in Cuba are likely to exceed, often considerably, the numbers recorded so far. According to the official census of , Cuba's population was 11,,, comprising 5,, men and 5,, women. Although the country's population has grown by about four million people since , the rate of growth slowed during that period, and the population began to decline in , due in the country's low fertility rate 1.
Indeed, this drop in fertility is among the largest in the Western Hemisphere  and is attributed largely to unrestricted access to legal abortion: Cuba's abortion rate was Cuba's population is multiethnic, reflecting its complex colonial origins. Intermarriage between diverse groups is widespread, and consequently there is some discrepancy in reports of the country's racial composition: In fact, the Minority Rights Group International determined that "An objective assessment of the situation of Afro-Cubans remains problematic due to scant records and a paucity of systematic studies both pre- and post-revolution.
Immigration and emigration have played a prominent part in Cuba's demographic profile. Between the 18th and early 20th century, large waves of Canarian , Catalan , Andalusian , Galician , and other Spanish people immigrated to Cuba. Between — alone, close to a million Spaniards entered the country, though many would eventually return to Spain. Post-revolution Cuba has been characterized by significant levels of emigration, which has led to a large and influential diaspora community.
Those who left the country typically did so by sea, in small boats and fragile rafts. On 9 September , the U. Cuba is officially a secular state. Religious freedom increased through the s,  with the government amending the constitution in to drop the state's characterization as atheistic. Roman Catholicism is the largest religion, with its origins in Spanish colonization. Despite less than half of the population identifying as Catholics in , it nonetheless remains the dominant faith.
The government's relaxation of restrictions on house churches in the s led to an explosion of Pentecostalism , with some groups claiming as many as , members. However, Evangelical Protestant denominations, organized into the umbrella Cuban Council of Churches, remain much more vibrant and powerful. The religious landscape of Cuba is also strongly defined by syncretisms of various kinds. The official language of Cuba is Spanish and the vast majority of Cubans speak it.
Internet in Cuba has some of the lowest penetration rates in the Western hemisphere, and all content is subject to review by the Department of Revolutionary Orientation. Internet access is controlled, and e-mail is closely monitored. Cuban culture is influenced by its melting pot of cultures, primarily those of Spain and Africa. After the revolution, the government started a national literacy campaign, offered free education to all and established rigorous sports, ballet and music programs.
Cuban music is very rich and is the most commonly known expression of Cuban culture. Popular Cuban music of all styles has been enjoyed and praised widely across the world. Cuban classical music, which includes music with strong African and European influences, and features symphonic works as well as music for soloists, has received international acclaim thanks to composers like Ernesto Lecuona.
Havana was the heart of the rap scene in Cuba when it began in the s. Cuban cuisine is a fusion of Spanish and Caribbean cuisines. Cuban recipes share spices and techniques with Spanish cooking, with some Caribbean influence in spice and flavor.
Food rationing, which has been the norm in Cuba for the last four decades, restricts the common availability of these dishes. The typical meal could consist of plantains, black beans and rice, ropa vieja shredded beef , Cuban bread , pork with onions, and tropical fruits. Black beans and rice, referred to as moros y cristianos or moros for short , and plantains are staples of the Cuban diet.
Many of the meat dishes are cooked slowly with light sauces. Garlic, cumin, oregano, and bay leaves are the dominant spices. Cuban literature began to find its voice in the early 19th century. Tallet focused on literature as social protest. Alejo Carpentier was important in the Magic realism movement. Dance holds a privileged position in Cuban culture. Popular dance is considered an essential part of life, and concert dance is supported by the government and includes internationally renowned companies such as the Ballet Nacional de Cuba.
Due to historical associations with the United States, many Cubans participate in sports that are popular in North America, rather than sports traditionally played in other Latin American nations. Baseball is the most popular. Other sports and pastimes include football , basketball , volleyball , cricket , and athletics. Cuba is a dominant force in amateur boxing , consistently achieving high medal tallies in major international competitions.
Cuban boxers are not permitted to turn professional by their government. However, many boxers defect to the U. The University of Havana was founded in and there are a number of other well-established colleges and universities. School attendance is compulsory from ages six to the end of basic secondary education normally at age 15 , and all students, regardless of age or gender, wear school uniforms with the color denoting grade level.
Primary education lasts for six years, secondary education is divided into basic and pre-university education. Higher education is provided by universities, higher institutes, higher pedagogical institutes, and higher polytechnic institutes.
The Cuban Ministry of Higher Education operates a distance education program that provides regular afternoon and evening courses in rural areas for agricultural workers. Education has a strong political and ideological emphasis, and students progressing to higher education are expected to have a commitment to the goals of Cuba. Cuba's life expectancy at birth is Infant mortality declined from 32 infant deaths per 1, live births in , to 10 in —95,  6.
Disease and infant mortality increased in the s immediately after the revolution, when half of Cuba's 6, doctors left the country. Challenges include low salaries for doctors,  poor facilities, poor provision of equipment, and the frequent absence of essential drugs. As of September , there are around 50, Cuban-trained health care workers aiding 66 nations.
This group also provides technical information for the production of these drugs. The vaccine has been available for free to the Cuban population since For over 40 years, they have had a preeminent immunology community. In , Cuba became the first country to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis,  a milestone hailed by the World Health Organization as "one of the greatest public health achievements possible".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Cuba disambiguation. Peso CUP Convertible peso a. From to , the United States dollar was used alongside the peso until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso. History of Cuba and Timeline of Cuban history. Captaincy General of Cuba. Cuban War of Independence. Republic of Cuba — Provinces of Cuba and Municipalities of Cuba. Human rights in Cuba , Censorship in Cuba , and Cuban dissidents.
Foreign relations of Cuba. Law enforcement in Cuba and Crime in Cuba. Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces. Cuban people and Demographics of Cuba. Self-identified race Census  Race White. Ancestral contributions in Cubans as inferred from autosomal AIMs. Ancestral contributions in Cubans as inferred from Y-chromosome markers. Ancestral contributions in Cubans as inferred from mtDNA markers.
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CIA DOCUMENTS ON THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS November 1, Soviet missiles leaving Cuba after the white-knuckled standoff. Shadow of the US .
The Armageddon Letters: Kennedy, Khrushchev, Castro in the Cuban Missile Crisis [James G. Blight, janet M. Lang] on hlcss.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In October, , the Cuban missile crisis brought human civilization to the brink of destruction. On the 50 th anniversary of the most dangerous confrontation of the nuclear era. history of cuba and the castro revolution, background to revolution , castro biographies, road to power, castro revolution, Leadership, Race, Social Policies, economy, dissidents, ernesto che guevara, castros cuba and world, missile crisis, africa, latin america.
Cuba (/ ˈ k juː b ə /; Spanish pronunciation:), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba (help · info)), is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor hlcss.ml is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the. In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force. First strike capability is a country's ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation while the opposing side is left unable to continue war. The preferred methodology is to attack the opponent's.