Genetics play an important role in the physical development of an adolescent. For instance, if the parents of a child are extremely hairy, then there is a high probability that the child will also become hairy earlier in life. Also, if both the parents are tall, then there is a high probability that the child will also become taller in their puberty years.
Environment encompasses family surroundings, media influences, culture and so on. For instance, one of the Asian countries requires girls to wear metal bands around their necks from early age so that when they get into the puberty years, they can develop long and slender necks. This is so because it is considered beautiful in their culture for girls to have long and slender necks; it is a part of their culture.
In addition, environmental and cultural factors such as television, internet, and media amongst others can play a major role to influence development in adolescence. Adolescence is also a time of changes occurring in the development of cognition. Piaget developed a theory of cognitive development which emphasize on the four stages that children must go through. Since the focus of this paper is adolescence, I would discuss the formal operational stage in depth as it is developed in ages of 11 and up.
Formal Operational stage can be characterized by abstract thinking, logical thought and hypothetical reasoning. In addition to attaining the ability to think abstractly, children in this phase have very egocentric way of thinking.
In other words, they cannot differentiate between what they are thinking and what others are thinking. This egocentric thought may be characterized into two ways: The factors that influence cognitive development in adolescents can be held responsible to both genetics and environmental influences.
In terms of hereditary influences, if either of the two parents biological of the child is suffering from mental health disorder such as schizophrenia, then it is very likely that the offspring will also develop this disorder. Hence, this will in turn disrupt the development of cognitive processes such as formal operational stage in the child.
Moreover, environment can also play a vital role in the cognitive development of an adolescent. For instance, if a child has grown up in a happy and a healthy environment where parents practice an authoritative parenting style then the child is more likely to reach the formal operational stage earlier and successfully in the adolescence years. Also, such an authoritative style of parenting facilitates good decision making in children.
In other words, when given a choice between healthy and unhealthy behaviors such as having unprotected sex, driving experimenting with drugs and alcohol; these children are less likely to take such decisions and act on it. Social development is studied by reflecting on the significance of attachment in ones life. Adolescence is a time when individuals tend to spend more time with peers than the primary caregivers. Not only that, adolescence is also a time when children group together to form cliques, intimate relationships and experiment with sexuality.
The factor that affects social development is attachment. Vast amount of research has been done on the relationship between the type of attachment style formed in the younger years and the relationships formed later in the adolescent and adult life. Athletic skills improve dramatically in early childhood, such as running and jumping. Tiger wood is the best golfer in the world because his father started teaching him how to golf when he was a year old. However, the fine motor skills, drawing and writing, develop slowly.
The child starts to understand the gender differences. In middle childhood, brain and physical growth slows, but height grows. Athletic and fine motor skills become more advanced. Puberty begins with rising hormone levels in late childhood. Gender specific physical changes appear, such as enlargement of breasts in girls and testes in boys. In physical maturation, on average, boys lag 2 years behind girls.
Variations in onset of puberty impact personality development. Cognitive development is the mental process of knowing. Children learn how to use words and symbols. Social interactions with parents and playmates teach children about the world. They get the ability to communicate with others. In middle childhood, they start to understand the process of logical principles. Their capacity of memory grows.
Their ability to think about their own thoughts increases. In this stage, children have the ability to learn different languages. All papers are written from scratch by only certified and experienced writers. Please contact our custom service if you have any questions concerning our service. Please enter a valid e-mail address.
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