They let voters see how candidates handle pressure. They let voters judge candidates' characters. Campaigns tend to emphasize themes over details. To win elections, candidates must find a wining coalition. Certain groups of voters can be very loyal , but the candidate must also look at the importance of various groups i. Catholics, southerners, unionists departing the coalition lately.
Party of business and professional people. Very loyal, defecting only in Usually wins vote of poor due to retired, elderly voters. This can happen when there is a change in issues that distinguish the parties or when a major party disappears and new party emerges.
Jacksonian Democrats came to power. Whigs collapsed; Republicans won. FDR Democrats came to power. Clearest cases of issue-related realignment: Strong national support for Republicans, but still often Democratic locally.
Defining issue also lacking. Party powers have declined in general over the last century: Fewer people identify with either party. Increase in ticket splitting. The effects of elections on policy: Great Britain , with parliamentary system and strong parties, often sees marked changes. Many kinds of cleavages in the country.
Constitution makes for many access points to government. Political parties are weak , so interests work directly on government. These groups are numerous and well-financed AMA, trial lawyers, small business, etc. Americans join these types of groups more frequently than citizens of other nations we are just as likely to join business interests, less likely to join unions. Most sympathizers do not join civil groups, though, because benefits flow to nonmembers, too.
Material incentives-money, things, services farm organizations, AARP. Ideological interest groups attract people who are passionate about a particular issue. Public interests seek to benefit the public at large Nader, many conservationists. The activities of interest groups: Supplying credible information to politicians. Single most important tactic.
Detailed, current information at a premium. Most effective on narrow, technical issues. Rating systems for politicians, their votes. Insider strategy previously most common--face-to-face contact between lobbyist and member or Hill staff. Increasing use of outsider strategy- grassroots mobilization. Money is least effective way to influence politicians — despite popular misconception, vote buying is very rare — politicians can take money and still decide how to vote personal ideology, with constituents.
Money can buy access , though. Campaign finance reform law of had two effects. Restricted amount interests can give to candidates. Made it legal for corporations and unions to create PACs.
Almost any organization can create a PAC. Recent increase in ideological PACs; one-third liberal, two-thirds conservative - ideological PACs raise more but spend less due to cost of raising money. Incumbents get most PAC money — most contributions are small.
Journalism in American political history — a progression over time: Parties created, subsidized, and controlled various newspapers. Possible because circulation small, subscriptions expensive. Newspapers circulated among political and business elites. Changes in society and technology made possible self-supporting, mass readership daily newspapers.
Associated Press, ; objective reporting. Urbanization concentrated population to support paper, advertisers. Government Printing Office established end of subsidies. Radio arrives in s, television in s. Politicians could address voters directly but people could easily ignore. Fewer politicians could be covered by these media than by newspapers. Others must use bold tactics. Most cities now do not have competing newspapers.
Television and radio, on the other hand, are intensely competitive. Internet news is available nationally. The national media consists of: Television network evening news broadcasts.
Newspapers with national readerships. In recent national elections, internet has been key. Significance of the national media: Washington officials follow it closely. National reporters and editors distinctive from local press.
From more prestigious universities. More liberal outlook local news often more conservative. Do investigative or interpretive stories. Roles played by the media in politics important: Newspapers are almost entirely free from government regulation. The first amendment has been very narrowly interpreted so as to protect a free press. There is no prior restraint , and any suit or prosecution for libel, obscenity, or incitement is narrowly very narrowly defined.
Radio and television are licensed and regulated. Right-of-reply rule if attacked by a candidate. Political-editorializing rule reply if broadcaster editorializes against. Fairness doctrine a right to reply if a show presented only one side of an issue -abolished in ; still voluntarily followed by many broadcasters, and may be reinstated in the future by law. Reporters want right to keep sources confidential. Most states and federal government disagree. Supreme Court allows government to compel reporters to divulge information in court if it bears on a crime.
Campaigning through television media: Equal time rule applies - equal access for all candidates. Rates no higher than cheapest commercial rate. Debates formerly had to include all candidates. Efficiency in reaching voters varies. The effects of the media on elections vary, but many political scientists believe that the effects are weaker than what people might perceive.
While the argument can clearly be made that the national media has a very liberal bias , this is often countered by local media , which often has a conservative bias. Major media effects are on how politics is conducted, candidates perceived TV news coverage can affect Presidential popularity , policy formulated.
Conventions are scheduled to accommodate television, candidates win party nomination via media exposure, and very importantly issues are established by media attention. Media influences the political agenda.
Are news stories slanted? Most people believe media, especially television, where they get most news. Percentage increasing among those who think media is biased. Press itself thinks it is unbiased. Liberal bias of journalists, especially national media. Types of news stories: Adversarial press since Vietnam , Watergate, Iran-contra. People now often believe media slant coverage, have too much influence, and abuse their constitutional protections.
Public confidence in big business is down, and now media are big business. Drive for market share forces media to use theme of corruption, and that often caused cynicism among citizens. Government constraints on journalists do exist. Reporters must strike a balance between expression of views and retaining sources. Government can also rely upon: Numerous press officers in legislative and executive branches.
Leaks and background stories to favorites. Bypass national press to local. Voters may not cross party lines. FCC rule no longer in effect that required broadcasters to air a variety of viewpoints on their programs. As sharks engage in a feeding frenzy when they sense blood in the water, the media "attack" when they sense wrongdoing or scandal in government, and devote great amounts of coverage to stories. Comparing with a primary election, only candidates are chosen. Drawing of district boundaries cracking and packing so as to favor one's own chance of future elections.
In elections in the US, a political campaign communication that expressly advocates the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidates that's not made in cooperation, consultation or concert with or at the request or suggestion of a candidate. AKA- special or public interest groups. One of many linkage institutions to gov for citizens. AKA- off year elections, or congressional or state elections that take place in the middle of a presidential term, where the number of registered voters who vote is always lower than in years that feature a national race.
Midterm elections usually generate lower voter turnout than presidential elections. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Midterm. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties.
United States midterm elections. The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico instead serves a four-year term that coincides with the presidential term. The other 48 state governors serve four-year terms. The Pew Center on the States. Archived from the original on Pew Research Center, July 24,
Definition: Election in the United States in which members of the united states congress and some legislatures and governors are elected. Sentence: It was about time for the midterm election. Here we are going to elect people other that the president.
midterm election. General elections in the United States that are held two years after the quadrennial (four-year) elections for the President of the United States. Federal offices up for election are all of the seats in the House and 33 or 34 of the seats of the Senate.
Midterm election definition ap gov, - Recent research papers in data mining. Custom essay writing assumes a profound research on the given topic. Fortunately, all of our writers have degrees in one or several scientific areas. AP Government - Public Opinion, Participation, and Voting; Shared Flashcard Set. Details. Title. AP Government - Public Opinion, Participation, and Voting. Description. Chapter 8: "Public Opinion, Participation, and Voting" from "Government by the People" 22nd Edition Midterm Election: Definition. Elections held midway between .
United States midterm election. Midterm elections in the United States refer to general elections in the United States that are held two years after the quadrennial (four-year) elections for the President of the United States (i.e. near the midpoint of the four-year presidential term). Midterm Election is a general election that does not coincide with a presidential election year, but occurs two years into the term of a president i.e. in the middle of a president's term in office, hence the name mid-term. While presidential elections are held every four years, general elections for other positions are held every two years.