Children with disabilities were repeatedly denied an education by physicians or special tutors. These early physicians people like Itard , Seguin , Howe , Gallaudet set the foundation for special education today. They focused on individualized instruction and functional skills. In its early years, special education was only provided to people with severe disabilities, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced difficulty learning.
While considered "alternative" today, most alternative systems have existed since ancient times. After the public school system was widely developed beginning in the 19th century, some parents found reasons to be discontented with the new system. Alternative education developed in part as a reaction to perceived limitations and failings of traditional education.
A broad range of educational approaches emerged, including alternative schools , self learning , homeschooling , and unschooling. Charter schools are another example of alternative education, which have in the recent years grown in numbers in the US and gained greater importance in its public education system. Indigenous education refers to the inclusion of indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal and non-formal educational systems.
Often in a post-colonial context, the growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism. Furthermore, it can enable indigenous communities to "reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students.
Informal learning occurs in a variety of places, such as at home , work , and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners, this includes language acquisition , cultural norms , and manners. In informal learning, there is often a reference person, a peer or expert, to guide the learner.
If learners have a personal interest in what they are informally being taught, learners tend to expand their existing knowledge and conceive new ideas about the topic being learned. While informal learning often takes place outside educational establishments and does not follow a specified curriculum, it can also occur within educational settings and even during formal learning situations.
Educators can structure their lessons to directly utilize their students informal learning skills within the education setting. In the late 19th century, education through play began to be recognized as making an important contribution to child development. Jacks , also an early proponent of lifelong learning, described education through recreation: He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his vision of excellence through whatever he is doing and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing.
To himself, he always seems to be doing both. Enough for him that he does it well. Autodidacticism also autodidactism is a term used to describe self-directed learning. One may become an autodidact at nearly any point in one's life. Notable autodidacts include Abraham Lincoln U. Many large university institutions are now starting to offer free or almost free full courses such as Harvard , MIT and Berkeley teaming up to form edX.
Other universities offering open education are prestigious private universities such as Stanford , Princeton , Duke , Johns Hopkins , the University of Pennylvania , and Caltech , as well as notable public universities including Tsinghua , Peking , Edinburgh , University of Michigan , and University of Virginia. Open education has been called the biggest change in the way people learn since the printing press.
Many open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing and traditional degrees and credentials. The conventional merit-system degree is currently not as common in open education as it is in campus universities, although some open universities do already offer conventional degrees such as the Open University in the United Kingdom.
Presently, many of the major open education sources offer their own form of certificate. Due to the popularity of open education, these new kind of academic certificates are gaining more respect and equal " academic value " to traditional degrees. Out of colleges surveyed in nearly half said tuition for online courses was higher than for campus-based ones.
A recent meta-analysis found that online and blended educational approaches had better outcomes than methods that used solely face-to-face interaction. The education sector or education system is a group of institutions ministries of education, local educational authorities, teacher training institutions, schools, universities, etc.
It involves a wide range of people curriculum developers, inspectors, school principals, teachers, school nurses, students, etc.
These institutions can vary according to different contexts. Schools deliver education, with support from the rest of the education system through various elements such as education policies and guidelines — to which school policies can refer — curricula and learning materials, as well as pre- and in-service teacher training programmes.
The school environment — both physical infrastructures and psychological school climate — is also guided by school policies that should ensure the well-being of students when they are in school.
They must also seek feedback from students for quality-assurance and improvement. Governments should limit themselves to monitoring student proficiency. The education sector is fully integrated into society, through interactions with a large number of stakeholders and other sectors. These include parents, local communities, religious leaders, NGOs, stakeholders involved in health, child protection , justice and law enforcement police , media and political leadership. Several UN agencies have asserted that comprehensive sexuality education should be integrated into school curriculum.
The Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by the United Nations UN General Assembly in September , calls for a new vision to address the environmental, social and economic concerns facing the world today.
Since , the ratio of children in the developing world attending school has increased. Before then, a small minority of boys attended school. By the start of the 21st century, the majority of all children in most regions of the world attended school.
Universal Primary Education is one of the eight international Millennium Development Goals , towards which progress has been made in the past decade, though barriers still remain. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have indicated that the main obstacles to funding for education include conflicting donor priorities, an immature aid architecture, and a lack of evidence and advocacy for the issue.
Indigenous governments are reluctant to take on the ongoing costs involved. There is also economic pressure from some parents, who prefer their children to earn money in the short term rather than work towards the long-term benefits of education.
A study conducted by the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning indicates that stronger capacities in educational planning and management may have an important spill-over effect on the system as a whole.
Nearly every country now has Universal Primary Education. Similarities — in systems or even in ideas — that schools share internationally have led to an increase in international student exchanges.
The Soros Foundation  provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Programs such as the International Baccalaureate have contributed to the internationalization of education.
The global campus online, led by American universities, allows free access to class materials and lecture files recorded during the actual classes. The Programme for International Student Assessment and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement objectively monitor and compare the proficiency of students from a wide range of different nations.
Technology plays an increasingly significant role in improving access to education for people living in impoverished areas and developing countries. Charities like One Laptop per Child are dedicated to providing infrastructures through which the disadvantaged may access educational materials. The laptops were widely available as of They are sold at cost or given away based on donations.
In Africa, the New Partnership for Africa's Development NEPAD has launched an " e-school program " to provide all , primary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years. India is developing technologies that will bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its students. In , the Indian Space Research Organisation launched EDUSAT , a communications satellite providing access to educational materials that can reach more of the country's population at a greatly reduced cost.
The report examined the main challenges encountered by development organizations which support LCPSs. This success is attributed to excess demand. These surveys found concern for:. The report showed some cases of successful voucher and subsidy programmes; evaluations of international support to the sector are not widespread. Emerging approaches stress the importance of understanding the political economy of the market for LCPS, specifically how relationships of power and accountability between users, government, and private providers can produce better education outcomes for the poor.
Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.
Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists , whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities.
Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology , bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology, in turn, informs a wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design , educational technology , curriculum development, organizational learning , special education and classroom management.
Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. Intelligence is an important factor in how the individual responds to education. Those who have higher intelligence tend to perform better at school and go on to higher levels of education. There has been much interest in learning modalities and styles over the last two decades.
The most commonly employed learning modalities are: Other commonly employed modalities include musical , interpersonal , verbal , logical , and intrapersonal. Dunn and Dunn  focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli  recommended varying teaching strategies. Howard Gardner  identified a wide range of modalities in his Multiple Intelligences theories.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter , based on the works of Jung ,  focus on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. Some theories propose that all individuals benefit from a variety of learning modalities, while others suggest that individuals may have preferred learning styles, learning more easily through visual or kinesthetic experiences.
Educational neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neuroscience , developmental cognitive neuroscience , educational psychology , educational technology , education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education. Several academic institutions around the world are beginning to devote resources to the establishment of educational neuroscience research.
As an academic field, philosophy of education is "the philosophical study of education and its problems That is, it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims, forms, methods, or results of the process of educating or being educated; or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline.
There is no broad consensus as to what education's chief aim or aims are or should be. It is a dilemma largely because virtue is immeasurable. Virtue is instilled likely by repeated actions, a process of trial and error, beginning at the mother's knee and to be continued by all those with whom the child has close connections, and this would certainly include the child's teachers.
It takes a "good" teacher, one full of great skills and a glow for presentation of the subject; it is particularly difficult when the subject is morals or virtue. We, adult and child alike, find ourselves in a vast market where the "Culture Standardizers" provide an immediate and sensual gratification to all comers.
The question before us is, what is the importance of education? One goal, as Spring states in his book American Education, is to produce reasonable citizens, ones that "commonly hold a political creed or else society is doomed to political strife or chaos" Education should be the essential method of building humane, free, and democratic societies. The aims of education are many: Dewey states, "the subject matter of education consists of bodies of information and of skills that have been worked out in the past; therefore, the chief business of the school is to transmit them to the next generation.
Unfortunately, the schools today are being increasingly replaced by the mass media as the primary institutions of public information and education.
Although the electronic media provide unparalleled opportunities for extending cultural enrichment and enjoyment, there has been a serious misdirection of their purposes. In some societies, the media serve as the vehicle of propaganda and indoctrination. In democratic society television, radio, films, and mass publishing too often cater to the lowest common denominatorand have become dull wastelands.
We need to believe that television directors and producers have an obligation to remedy the balance and revise their programming. The essential answer to any question usually comes out of its definition. Considering the definition set out at the first of this section, then, we might say that essentially that education is a socialization process.
Is this best achieved by public education? What are the arguments for putting education into public hands? If not the impossible goal that every one should be educated, then, at least, the goal of equal educational opportunity for all, or, another way of putting it, to make education readily available to all.
As stated by Spring, "all people are given an equal chance to receive an education or, in other words, equality of educational opportunity" The assumption has been that if the state does not make "free" education readily available, many of our young will not be educated, an assumption that may not hold up in these modern times. A further assumption is that with "free" public education that our children will be educated, an assumption that is not being born out by the statistics.
Parents, at least those who possess a sense of parental responsibility, would like to see that their children get the educational basics, whatever they may be. I realize the importance of gaining credibility among my future colleagues and people that I will be serving in the field. My view of Education is that of a reformist. I have a particular interest in the improvement of homeless individuals, single mothers and women of color. Because of my own experience with both homelessness and single motherhood, I know the feeling of helplessness as you are sinking deeper and deeper in desperation that you feel that you will never recover from it.
Although I have struggled hard to get myself out of this situation I refuse to forget. I have strove to make a difference wherever I can. As volunteer at Christian Assistance Ministry I witnessed the overworked conditions that the social workers and volunteers faced.
Worn from these conditions these dedicated workers had no respite from their daily work of feeding, clothing and providing funds for the homeless and families who have found themselves in a desperate situation. Although I had many job responsibilities at Christian Assistance Ministry the most common was that of interviewer where I assessed the clients situation and offered help either monetary or that of food and clothing.
I soon found that intake and interview forms as well as information that was distributed to the patrons. I took it upon myself after approval from the Director to redo and modernize these forms and lists. Also I had initiated lists of other agencies that would assist clients find additional help that they needed in the Greater Houston Area.
One of theses lists that I have generated has been used by City Public Service to refer customers that are in need of financial assistance to pay their utility bills. I had contacted each of the agencies personally to get up to date hours, addresses and contact names and numbers before adding them to the list.
Many patrons of Christian Assistance Ministry were included in my project as I compiled lists of job hotlines, shelters and affordable housing options.
This inclusion also gave many of the patrons a sense of community collaboration, as I would discuss information with them. With my directors approval I sent out surveys asking various questions about the service we provide and got an overwhelming response. This information was used in a quarterly report that is submitted to our funding agency in Washington DC.
There are several purposes of education. The soul purpose of education is to educate all students and give everyone equal opportunity as a means to succeed in life. Through knowledge and skill, all individuals can achieve greatness. In addition, common values such as punctuality, following rules /5(15).
Essay: The Purpose of Education Everyday we go to school to receive our education, but what is the purpose of education? Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s speech, “The Purpose of Education” and Frank O’Connor’s short story, “Christmas Morning,” both discuss what is the purpose of education.
Analytical Essay: The Purpose of Education In this essay I will analyze the purpose of education. There are some people in this world that have very little education at all and they are richer than people with numerous qualifications and years of study behind them. Essay: The Purpose of Education Everyday we go to school to receive our education, but what is the purpose of education? Dr. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s speech, “The Purpose of Education ” and Frank O’Connor’s short story, “Christmas Morning,” both discuss what is the purpose of education.
- Purpose of Education In almost every culture and in all parts of the world, getting an education is valuable to a person’s future. But what is it that makes education so valuable. What is the purpose of an education starting from the early stages of a child’s development into adolescents, and from adolescents into adulthood. Synthesis Essay: The Purpose of Education Everyday we go to school to receive our education, but what is the purpose of education? Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s speech, “The Purpose of Education” and Frank O’Connor’s short story, “Christmas Morning,” both discuss what is the purpose of education.