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The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution disqualifies from the Senate any federal or state officers who had taken the requisite oath to support the Constitution, but later engaged in rebellion or aided the enemies of the United States.

This provision, which came into force soon after the end of the Civil War, was intended to prevent those who had sided with the Confederacy from serving. That Amendment, however, also provides a method to remove that disqualification: Originally, senators were selected by the state legislatures , not by popular elections. By the early years of the 20th century, the legislatures of as many as 29 states had provided for popular election of senators by referendums.

Senators serve terms of six years each; the terms are staggered so that approximately one-third of the seats are up for election every two years. This was achieved by dividing the senators of the 1st Congress into thirds called classes , where the terms of one-third expired after two years, the terms of another third expired after four, and the terms of the last third expired after six years.

This arrangement was also followed after the admission of new states into the union. The staggering of terms has been arranged such that both seats from a given state are not contested in the same general election, except when a mid-term vacancy is being filled.

Current senators whose six-year terms are set to expire on January 3, , belong to Class I. There is no constitutional limit to the number of terms a senator may serve. The Constitution set the date for Congress to convene—Article 1, Section 4, Clause 2 originally set that date for the third day of December. The Twentieth Amendment , however, changed the opening date for sessions to noon on the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

The Twentieth Amendment also states that Congress shall assemble at least once in every year and allows Congress to determine its convening and adjournment dates and other dates and schedules as it desires. Article 1, Section 3 provides that the President has the power to convene Congress on extraordinary occasions at his discretion.

A member who has been elected, but not yet seated, is called a "senator-elect"; a member who has been appointed to a seat, but not yet seated, is called a "senator-designate". Elections to the Senate are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years, Election Day , and coincide with elections for the House of Representatives.

The Elections Clause of the United States Constitution grants each state and Congress, if it so desires to implement a uniform law the power to legislate a method by which senators are elected.

Ballot access rules for independent and minor party candidates also vary from state to state. In 45 states, a primary election is held first for the Republican and Democratic parties and a select few third parties , depending on the state with the general election following a few months later.

In most of these states, the nominee may receive only a plurality, while in some states, a runoff is required if no majority was achieved. In the general election, the winner is the candidate who receives a plurality of the popular vote. However, in 5 states, different methods are used.

In Georgia , a runoff between the top two candidates occurs if the plurality winner in the general election does not also win a majority. In Washington , California , and Louisiana , a nonpartisan blanket primary also known as a "jungle primary" or "top-two primary" is held in which all candidates participate in a single primary regardless of party affiliation and the top two candidates in terms of votes received at the primary election advance to the general election, where the winner is the candidate with the greater number of votes.

In Louisiana, the blanket primary is considered the general election and the winner of the blanket primary can win the overall election if he or she received a majority of the vote, skipping the run-off.

This can lead to a potential situation in those three states in which both candidates advancing are affiliated with the same party and the seat is considered "won" by that party even though a winner has not been determined yet overall. In Maine , following two ballot initiatives in and , respectively, to establish and maintain instant-runoff voting , known in that state as "ranked-choice voting", the state uses RCV to nominate and elect candidates for federal offices, including the Senate.

The Seventeenth Amendment requires that mid-term vacancies in the Senate be filled by special election. Whenever a Senator must be appointed or elected, the Secretary of the Senate mails one of three forms to the state's governor to inform them of the proper wording to certify the appointment of a new senator. A senator elected in a special election takes office as soon as possible after the election and serves until the original six-year term expires i. The Seventeenth Amendment also allows state legislatures to give their governors the power "to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct".

The temporary appointee may run in the special election in their own right. As of , forty-five states permit their governors to make such appointments.

In thirty-seven of these states, the special election to permanently fill the U. Senate seat is customarily held at the next general election. The other ten states require that seat remain vacant until an election can be held, often a special elections be held outside of the normal two-year election cycle.

In six states, the governor must appoint someone of the same political party as the previous incumbent.

In , Alaska enacted legislation and a separate ballot referendum that took effect on the same day, but that conflicted with each other. The effect of the ballot-approved law is to withhold from the governor authority to appoint a senator. The Constitution requires that senators take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution. So help me God. Along with earning salaries, senators receive retirement and health benefits that are identical to other federal employees, and are fully vested after five years of service.

As it is for federal employees, congressional retirement is funded through taxes and the participants' contributions. Under FERS, senators contribute 1. The amount of a senator's pension depends on the years of service and the average of the highest three years of their salary. Senators are regarded as more prominent political figures than members of the House of Representatives because there are fewer of them, and because they serve for longer terms, usually represent larger constituencies the exception being House at-large districts, which similarly cover entire states , sit on more committees, and have more staffers.

Far more senators have been nominees for the presidency than representatives. Furthermore, three senators Warren Harding , John F.

Kennedy , and Barack Obama have been elected president while serving in the Senate, while only one Representative James Garfield has been elected president while serving in the House, though Garfield was also a Senator-designate at the time of his election to the Presidency, having been chosen by the Ohio Legislature to fill a Senate vacancy. According to the convention of Senate seniority, the senator with the longer tenure in each state is known as the "senior senator"; the other is the "junior senator".

This convention does not have official significance, though seniority generally is a factor in the selection of physical offices.

The most-junior "senior senator" is Bill Cassidy of Louisiana , who was sworn in January 3, , and is currently 79th in seniority, ahead of senator John Neely Kennedy who was sworn in January 3, and is currently 95th in seniority.

The Senate may expel a senator by a two-thirds vote. Fifteen senators have been expelled in the Senate's history: William Blount , for treason, in , and fourteen in and for supporting the Confederate secession. The Senate has also censured and condemned senators; censure requires only a simple majority and does not remove a senator from office. Some senators have opted to withdraw from their re-election races rather than face certain censure or expulsion, such as Robert Torricelli in The "Majority party" is the political party that either has a majority of seats or can form a coalition or caucus with a majority of seats; if two or more parties are tied, the vice president's affiliation determines which party is the majority party.

The next-largest party is known as the minority party. The president pro tempore, committee chairs, and some other officials are generally from the majority party; they have counterparts for instance, the "ranking members" of committees in the minority party.

Independents and members of third parties so long as they do not caucus with or support either of the larger parties are not considered in determining which is the majority party.

At one end of the chamber of the Senate is a dais from which the presiding officer presides. The lower tier of the dais is used by clerks and other officials. One hundred desks are arranged in the chamber in a semicircular pattern and are divided by a wide central aisle. The Democratic Party traditionally sits to the presiding officer's right, and the Republican Party traditionally sits to the presiding officer's left, regardless of which party has a majority of seats.

Each senator chooses a desk based on seniority within the party. By custom, the leader of each party sits in the front row along the center aisle. Forty-eight of the desks date back to , when the Senate chamber was reconstructed after the original contents were destroyed in the Burning of Washington.

Further desks of similar design were added as new states entered the Union. Except for the President of the Senate, the Senate elects its own officers, [1] who maintain order and decorum, manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate, and interpret the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.

Many non-member officers are also hired to run various day-to-day functions of the Senate. He or she may vote in the Senate ex officio , for he or she is not an elected member of the Senate in the case of a tie, but is not required to. Since the s, Vice Presidents have presided over few Senate debates.

Instead, they have usually presided only on ceremonial occasions, such as swearing in new senators, joint sessions, or at times to announce the result of significant legislation or nomination, or when a tie vote on an important issue is anticipated.

The Constitution authorizes the Senate to elect a president pro tempore Latin for "president for a time" who presides over the chamber in the vice president's absence, and is, by custom, the senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service. Frequently, freshmen senators newly elected members are asked to preside so that they may become accustomed to the rules and procedures of the body. The presiding officer sits in a chair in the front of the Senate chamber.

The powers of the presiding officer of the Senate are far less extensive than those of the Speaker of the House. The presiding officer calls on senators to speak by the rules of the Senate, the first senator who rises is recognized ; ruling on points of order objections by senators that a rule has been breached, subject to appeal to the whole chamber ; and announcing the results of votes.

Each party elects Senate party leaders. Floor leaders act as the party chief spokesmen. The Senate Majority Leader is responsible for controlling the agenda of the chamber by scheduling debates and votes. Each party elects an assistant leader whip who works to ensure that his party's senators vote as the party leadership desires.

In addition to the Vice President, the Senate has several officers who are not members. The Senate's chief administrative officer is the Secretary of the Senate , who maintains public records, disburses salaries, monitors the acquisition of stationery and supplies, and oversees clerks.

The Assistant Secretary of the Senate aids the secretary's work. Another official is the Sergeant at Arms who, as the Senate's chief law enforcement officer, maintains order and security on the Senate premises. The Capitol Police handle routine police work, with the sergeant at arms primarily responsible for general oversight. Other employees include the Chaplain , who is elected by the Senate, and Pages , who are appointed.

The Senate uses Standing Rules for operation. Sessions of the Senate are opened with a special prayer or invocation and typically convene on weekdays. Senate procedure depends not only on the rules, but also on a variety of customs and traditions. The Senate commonly waives some of its stricter rules by unanimous consent. Unanimous consent agreements are typically negotiated beforehand by party leaders. A senator may block such an agreement, but in practice, objections are rare.

The presiding officer enforces the rules of the Senate, and may warn members who deviate from them. The presiding officer sometimes uses the gavel of the Senate to maintain order. A " hold " is placed when the leader's office is notified that a senator intends to object to a request for unanimous consent from the Senate to consider or pass a measure.

A hold may be placed for any reason and can be lifted by a senator at any time. A senator may place a hold simply to review a bill, to negotiate changes to the bill, or to kill the bill. A bill can be held for as long as the senator who objects to the bill wishes to block its consideration.

Holds can be overcome, but require time-consuming procedures such as filing cloture. Holds are considered private communications between a senator and the Leader, and are sometimes referred to as "secret holds".

A senator may disclose that he or she has placed a hold. The Constitution provides that a majority of the Senate constitutes a quorum to do business. Under the rules and customs of the Senate, a quorum is always assumed present unless a quorum call explicitly demonstrates otherwise. A senator may request a quorum call by "suggesting the absence of a quorum"; a clerk then calls the roll of the Senate and notes which members are present.

In practice, senators rarely request quorum calls to establish the presence of a quorum. Instead, quorum calls are generally used to temporarily delay proceedings; usually such delays are used while waiting for a senator to reach the floor to speak or to give leaders time to negotiate.

Once the need for a delay has ended, a senator may request unanimous consent to rescind the quorum call. Debate, like most other matters governing the internal functioning of the Senate, is governed by internal rules adopted by the Senate. During debate, senators may only speak if called upon by the presiding officer, but the presiding officer is required to recognize the first senator who rises to speak. Thus, the presiding officer has little control over the course of debate.

Customarily, the Majority Leader and Minority Leader are accorded priority during debates even if another senator rises first. All speeches must be addressed to the presiding officer, who is addressed as "Mr. President" or "Madam President", and not to another member; other Members must be referred to in the third person. In most cases, senators do not refer to each other by name, but by state or position, using forms such as "the senior senator from Virginia", "the gentleman from California", or "my distinguished friend the Chairman of the Judiciary Committee".

Senators address the Senate standing next to their desk. Apart from rules governing civility, there are few restrictions on the content of speeches; there is no requirement that speeches pertain to the matter before the Senate. The rules of the Senate provide that no senator may make more than two speeches on a motion or bill on the same legislative day. A legislative day begins when the Senate convenes and ends with adjournment; hence, it does not necessarily coincide with the calendar day.

The length of these speeches is not limited by the rules; thus, in most cases, senators may speak for as long as they please. Often, the Senate adopts unanimous consent agreements imposing time limits.

In other cases for example, for the budget process , limits are imposed by statute. However, the right to unlimited debate is generally preserved. Within the United States, the Senate is sometimes referred to as "world's greatest deliberative body". The filibuster is a tactic used to defeat bills and motions by prolonging debate indefinitely. A filibuster may entail long speeches, dilatory motions, and an extensive series of proposed amendments. The Senate may end a filibuster by invoking cloture.

In current practice, the threat of filibuster is more important than its use; almost any motion that does not have the support of three-fifths of the Senate effectively fails.

This means that 41 senators can make a filibuster happen. Historically, cloture has rarely been invoked because bipartisan support is usually necessary to obtain the required supermajority , so a bill that already has bipartisan support is rarely subject to threats of filibuster.

However, motions for cloture have increased significantly in recent years. If the Senate invokes cloture, debate does not end immediately; instead, it is limited to 2 additional hours unless increased by another three-fifths vote.

The longest filibuster speech in the Senate's history was delivered by Strom Thurmond , who spoke for over 24 hours in an unsuccessful attempt to block the passage of the Civil Rights Act of Under certain circumstances, the Congressional Budget Act of provides for a process called " reconciliation " by which Congress can pass bills related to the budget without those bills being subject to a filibuster.

This is accomplished by limiting all Senate floor debate to 20 hours. When debate concludes, the motion in question is put to a vote. The Senate often votes by voice vote. The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote. A senator, however, may challenge the presiding officer's assessment and request a recorded vote.

The request may be granted only if it is seconded by one-fifth of the senators present. In practice, however, senators second requests for recorded votes as a matter of courtesy. When a recorded vote is held, the clerk calls the roll of the Senate in alphabetical order; senators respond when their name is called.

Senators who were not in the chamber when their name was called may still cast a vote so long as the voting remains open. The vote is closed at the discretion of the presiding officer, but must remain open for a minimum of 15 minutes. A majority of those voting determines whether the motion carries. If the vice president is not present, the motion fails.

Filibustered bills require a three-fifths majority to overcome the cloture vote which usually means 60 votes and get to the normal vote where a simple majority usually 51 votes approves the bill. This has caused some news media to confuse the 60 votes needed to overcome a filibuster with the 51 votes needed to approve a bill, with for example USA Today erroneously stating " The vote was in favor of the provision establishing concealed carry permit reciprocity in the 48 states that have concealed weapons laws.

That fell two votes short of the 60 needed to approve the measure ". On occasion, the Senate may go into what is called a secret or closed session. During a closed session, the chamber doors are closed, cameras are turned off, and the galleries are completely cleared of anyone not sworn to secrecy, not instructed in the rules of the closed session, or not essential to the session.

Closed sessions are rare and usually held only when the Senate is discussing sensitive subject matter such as information critical to national security, private communications from the president, or deliberations during impeachment trials. A senator may call for and force a closed session if the motion is seconded by at least one other member, but an agreement usually occurs beforehand.

The proceedings remain sealed indefinitely until the Senate votes to remove the injunction of secrecy. The latter identifies executive resolutions, treaties, and nominations reported out by Senate committee s and awaiting Senate floor action. Both are updated each day the Senate is in session. The Senate uses committees and their subcommittees for a variety of purposes, including the review of bills and the oversight of the executive branch.

Formally, the whole Senate appoints committee members. In practice, however, the choice of members is made by the political parties. Generally, each party honors the preferences of individual senators, giving priority based on seniority. Each party is allocated seats on committees in proportion to its overall strength. Most committee work is performed by 16 standing committees, each of which has jurisdiction over a field such as finance or foreign relations.

Each standing committee may consider, amend, and report bills that fall under its jurisdiction. Furthermore, each standing committee considers presidential nominations to offices related to its jurisdiction. For instance, the Judiciary Committee considers nominees for judgeships, and the Foreign Relations Committee considers nominees for positions in the Department of State.

Committees may block nominees and impede bills from reaching the floor of the Senate. Standing committees also oversee the departments and agencies of the executive branch.

In discharging their duties, standing committees have the power to hold hearings and to subpoena witnesses and evidence. The Senate also has several committees that are not considered standing committees. Such bodies are generally known as select or special committees ; examples include the Select Committee on Ethics and the Special Committee on Aging.

Legislation is referred to some of these committees, although the bulk of legislative work is performed by the standing committees. Committees may be established on an ad hoc basis for specific purposes; for instance, the Senate Watergate Committee was a special committee created to investigate the Watergate scandal. Such temporary committees cease to exist after fulfilling their tasks.

The Congress includes joint committees, which include members from both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Some joint committees oversee independent government bodies; for instance, the Joint Committee on the Library oversees the Library of Congress.

Other joint committees serve to make advisory reports; for example, there exists a Joint Committee on Taxation. Bills and nominees are not referred to joint committees. Hence, the power of joint committees is considerably lower than those of standing committees.

Each Senate committee and subcommittee is led by a chair usually a member of the majority party. Formerly, committee chairs were determined purely by seniority; as a result, several elderly senators continued to serve as chair despite severe physical infirmity or even senility. The chairs hold extensive powers: This last role was particularly important in mid-century, when floor amendments were thought not to be collegial.

They also have considerable influence: The Senate rules and customs were reformed in the twentieth century, largely in the s.

Committee chairmen have less power and are generally more moderate and collegial in exercising it, than they were before reform. Recent criticisms of the Senate's operations object to what the critics argue is obsolescence as a result of partisan paralysis and a preponderance of arcane rules.

Bills may be introduced in either chamber of Congress. However, the Constitution's Origination Clause provides that "All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives". Furthermore, the House of Representatives holds that the Senate does not have the power to originate appropriation bills , or bills authorizing the expenditure of federal funds. However, when the Senate originates an appropriations bill, the House simply refuses to consider it, thereby settling the dispute in practice.

The constitutional provision barring the Senate from introducing revenue bills is based on the practice of the British Parliament , in which only the House of Commons may originate such measures. Although the Constitution gave the House the power to initiate revenue bills, in practice the Senate is equal to the House in the respect of spending.

As Woodrow Wilson wrote:. The Senate's right to amend general appropriation bills has been allowed the widest possible scope. The upper house may add to them what it pleases; may go altogether outside of their original provisions and tack to them entirely new features of legislation, altering not only the amounts but even the objects of expenditure, and making out of the materials sent them by the popular chamber measures of an almost totally new character.

The approval of both houses is required for any bill, including a revenue bill, to become law. Both Houses must pass the same version of the bill; if there are differences, they may be resolved by sending amendments back and forth or by a conference committee , which includes members of both bodies.

The Constitution provides several unique functions for the Senate that form its ability to "check and balance" the powers of other elements of the Federal Government. These include the requirement that the Senate may advise and must consent to some of the president's government appointments; also the Senate must consent to all treaties with foreign governments; it tries all impeachments, and it elects the vice president in the event no person gets a majority of the electoral votes.

The president can make certain appointments only with the advice and consent of the Senate. Officials whose appointments require the Senate's approval include members of the Cabinet, heads of most federal executive agencies, ambassadors , Justices of the Supreme Court, and other federal judges.

Under Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution, a large number of government appointments are subject to potential confirmation; however, Congress has passed legislation to authorize the appointment of many officials without the Senate's consent usually, confirmation requirements are reserved for those officials with the most significant final decision-making authority.

Typically, a nominee is first subject to a hearing before a Senate committee. Thereafter, the nomination is considered by the full Senate. The majority of nominees are confirmed, but in a small number of cases each year, Senate committees purposely fail to act on a nomination to block it. In addition, the president sometimes withdraws nominations when they appear unlikely to be confirmed.

Because of this, outright rejections of nominees on the Senate floor are infrequent there have been only nine Cabinet nominees rejected outright in United States history.

I'm one of the anomalies, having had major spinal problems for many years. All opiates are morphine derivatives except for synthetics , so it makes no difference which variation of the drug your taking - all of them do the same thing. The biggest problem I've had to contend with over the years is mood swings, but that's typical of most opiates.

It's important that your family and friends are aware of this problem, since it can happen at any time. Prior to being disabled, I was a Karate instructor and learned much about mental control of pain, and how to increase pain tolerance. While this helps considerably, for those of us in constant pain, your mental barriers and chemical controls will not always work - remember that the pain is always there, and the morphine only alters your brain's perception.

Eventually those barriers break down, and it comes out in the form of mood swings. My wife and daughter have learned over the years to just close my door and leave me alone, as they know it's the drugs and not really me.

Many families fail to deal with this early on and as a result do not make it. Constipation and urination problems are another - they'll be with you as long as you're taking it in any form.

My solution is chocolate pudding or ice cream. Lemonade will go through you as well. It's important to keep your kidneys and liver healthy as well to ensure your body is filtering it out of your system. Cranberry juice is great for that, or just a lot of water. The longer you're dependent, the longer it will take to end your dependence if at some point you're able to down the road.

The key is to drop your opiate level slowly over a period of weeks or months, using oral doses in smaller quantities to help deal with the withdrawals.

At some point though, you'll need to deal with withdrawals in force, and it's not fun. Anti-anxiety and anti-nausea meds will help, as well as a sedative. It takes the body about a month to recover, so if you can do it, make sure that you've got someone around who can help, and that your schedule is clear for the duration.

Opiates alter the brain's perception of not only pain, but your own strength. If you're weak physically at the time, you'll be pretty weak as it leaves your system, but eventually you'll bounce back as your system recovers. In the end though, it comes down to quality of life, and I resigned myself long ago to the possibility I'd require opiates for the rest of my life. We're all on a journey toward death anyway - how we get there, and what we're able to do in that time is the important thing.

If it takes opiates to do it, then so be it. How long are the terms of US senators and representatives? US Senators hold office for six-year terms and Representatives serve two-year terms. How long is a senator's term in office? It depends on the legislation of the country in question. In the US, a senator may serve as many 6-year terms as he wishes, as long as he is re-elected. How long is a US Senator's term of office?

Thereis no limit on how many terms a Senator can be elected to serve. How long is the term of a US congressman? Two years is the length of a term in the US House of Representatives. There are no restrictions on how many times a representative can be re-elected. The words "Congressman", "Congresswoman" and "congressmen" are often used to describe only members of the house, but be sure to know that the US Congress includes the Senate as well as the House of Representatives.

Elections for the House and Senate are held on the same day in November every two years. What is a short-term and long-term effect for using drugs? It all depends what drugs you're talking about. Some can kill you while some have little to no long term effects, or even help you deal with a disease or condition. Again, depending on the drug, undesirable effects can include: Problems with memory and learning;.

Distorted perception sights, sounds, time, touch. Trouble with thinking and problem-solving. Increased heart rate, anxiety. What is the length of a Senator's term? A Senator holds office for six years, although they can be continuously elected for their life. What are the long term effects of marijuana use? Long Term effects of Marijuana. Short and long term memory loss. Rewiring of nerve cells containing dopamine. Mild increase in addiction vulnerability.

Decreased ability to deal with stress. These symptoms occur in fewer individuals: Depending on the method of intake, smoke from the marijuana can cause lung problems including coughs and colds, emphysema, cancer. Higher incidence of schizophrenia. It is currently unknown whether Marijuana may simply be a trigger for those already vulnerable to the disease, or a cause. Fines and jail time varies from region to region. How long is the US vice president's term? The same as the President's.

If the current President dies, the Vice President completes his term as the President. A Vice President-elect normally assumes office shortly before the new President noon on January 20 following the election. Under the 25th Amendment, a new vice president is nominated and confirmed whenever the office is vacant, assuming that it is not a very short period before a new President and Vice President are to be inaugurated.

Can spermicide be used long term? How long is a state senator's term? A "state senator" is one elected to the upper chamber of a state legislature. In my home state of Washington, the term for a Senator is 4 years. The length of the term varies by state.

How long is the term of office for the US Senate? There are no term limits, and 'seniority' rules mean thatthose elected repeatedly often wield more authority in committees. How long is a term in the US House of Representatives? A term for a member of the U. House of Representatives is twoyears. To retain their seats, members must run for re-electionevery two years. Elections for House members are held in Novemberof every even-numbered year.

There is no limit to the number of times a House member may bere-elected, and many representatives are re-elected year afteryear. The term of office for the US House of Representatives is two years; there are no term limits. Representatives may be elected for as many terms as the voters wish, for as long as the Representative chooses to serve. What is the difference between a senator's term of office and that of a representative?

The main difference between a Senator's term and that of aRepresentative in the United States Congress is length. Senatorsare elected to terms of 6 years, and the terms for the House are 2years. Long term effections of using marijuana? People who have been using pot for a long time get brown circles under their eyes for one. Secondly they get grumpy when they don't have their daily joints and don't let anyone ever tell you it's not addictive, as it is very addictive. They soon develope a harsh cough which is dry and while it's not a proven fact depending on how the person smokes it, but it can be a cause for Cancer as pot smokes hot, and people who smoke it long term could get Cancer of the mouth or lips.

What is long term affects of using phetermine? Phentermine is not recommended for long term usage, and has beenlinked to several side effects. The most common were dry mouth,dizziness, but could escalate to high blood pressure, tremors andpalpitations.

What are the dangers of long term tranxene use? Without any knowledge of the drug:. I was put on tranxene in and each attempt to take me off of it puts me in the ER with severe hypertension, and arterial fibulation, why is this and how can I explain this to doctors who are hesitant about refilling my prescriptions.

When does South Dakota's senator's term end? United States senators have a term of six years. A senator may runfor office as many times as they would like. What is the purpose for the length of a Senator's term of office? This motivates the Senator to be honest and to work for the peopleor state that elected them. They won't get too comfortable in theirposition. How long is the term for a US Federal judge? United States District Judges in federal district courts , United States Court of Appeals Judges in the courts of appeals , and United States Supreme Court Justices are appointed pursuant to Article III of the United States Constitution, "hold their offices during good behavior," meaning they're appointed for life until they die, retire, or are impeached.

Other types of judges, such as United States Magistrate Judges, Bankruptcy Judges, Administrative Law Judges, and some specialty court judges are appointed pursuant to Congress's power to create courts of limited jurisdiction in Article I of the Constitution.

Judges of US Special Courts generally serve fifteen year terms. Magistrate Judge, on the other hand, is appointed for 8 years, but may be reappointed. What are the long term effects of tobacco use? Nicotine is an acid, it makes you ulcers hurt.

Cancer likes the acid in nicotine and tar and it likes the acid environment, create a healthy environment and cancer cannot exist. How long is a term for a us representitive?

Each term for a United States Representative is for two years. How long is a senator's term? US Senators serve for 6 years. However, the number of times they can run for reelection is unlimited. Why did the Framers set each Senator's term at six years instead of two?


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The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution.

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The U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives make up the two chambers of Congress. The Senate has members, 2 from each state, who are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. Agency Details.

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Current Senate leaders and officers as well as links to historical essays, lists, and artwork depicting former leaders. Former Senators Links to historical lists and statistics, art work, images, and research collections of former senators. Senators in 31 states have a four-year term. Senators in 12 states have a two-year term. Senators in seven states (Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey and Texas) have terms that are sometimes two years and sometimes four years, depending on the proximity of the election to the legislative re-apportionments that .

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The US Constitution, Article I, Sections 2 and 3, sets the term lengths and qualifications for US Senators and Congressmen. Article I sets the term of office for members of th e US House of Representatives at two years (Section . The U.S. Senate, together with the U.S. House of Representatives, makes up the U.S. Congress. The Senate holds certain unique powers and obligations. Its makeup is different too: two senators represent each state, and senators serve staggered six-year terms. Since the Senate Historical Office.