Additionally, an organisation has the advantage of project management software applications which facilitates intelligent planning, constraint removal and monitoring of projects. The traditional approach assumes that the project scope and goals will remain constant till project completion.
Obviously, a project manager plans and identifies project resources based on this assumption. The traditional approach lays down the following project phases:. Since the approach is inherently rigid, many organisations may choose a hybrid project management approach. The approach assumes that at least one constraint behavioural or process-related is likely to hinder projects which utilise complex processes and a large number of cross-functional teams.
The approach recommends the use of behavioural and mathematical sciences to first predict, and then analyse and remove constraints. The project team can use data to remove the constraints. For example, if productivity is a foreseen concern, then a project manager could track the actual time spent by team members on the job. This approach is useful in sending quality deliverables on time by proactively removing constraints.
This approach is suitable for projects which handle dynamic situations, such as, changing customer requirements. Often, it may not be possible to obtain a full clarity of requirements and a project may purely be guided by market changes.
The mobile phone industry, which experiences rapid changes, is a case in point. The project team, hence, plans purely on the basis of the currently available data and depending on requirement changes, modifies plans. According to this approach, a single constraint can create a chain of constraints and severely impede a project.
For example, in a project, if several departments depend on one another, then constraints in any one department can negatively impact the productivity of downstream departments. Reliable data, collected over time, can even help track event chains. The Gantt chart is a popular event chain tracking tool. The event chain approach, hence, could be an excellent problem solving approach for critical projects.
Project management software capabilities have expanded notably and it gives more than just scheduling meetings and activities. A project management tool can estimate the effort, monitor project progress and highlight risks.
It can also preserve historical data on past projects, which can be extremely useful in foreseeing constraints. Project management tools are available as desktop, web-based and collaborative applications and they are compatible for every type of project management approach.
Project Management is a set of principles to effectively manage the process and activity of planning, organizing motivating and controlling resources and procedures to achieve specific goals in a unique environment.
Project life cycle define the beginning and end of a project with a project sequence that is necessary to fulfil project goals or objectives. All projects can be mapped to four basic phases. The project life cycle is an important tool to manage the sequence of tasks that need to be completed in a project. A Programme is more than one project that is managed jointly to provide better management overview. These project may contain ongoing operations as well as repetitive undertakings.
Question 2 The Project Life Cycle has been divided into 4 basic phases: Project Initiation The Initiation Phase is the backbone of the project where goals is set in the life-cycle. In this phase a challenge or an opportunity is identified and solution options are presented. A feasibility study will be conducted to identify the correct solution for the project. The solution needs to be approved and the project are initialized. A Project Manager is appointed and the objectives, scope and structure of the new project is outlined in the Project Charter.
The project team and environment is established to head the project. The Planning phase involves the creation of a set of planning documents witch will guide the project team through the project. It identifies the Work Breakdown Structure WBS of phases, activities, tasks, dependencies and timeframes to be under taken to complete the project.
This would be the total cost of labour, equipment, materials. As it is now known project management is one of the integral parts of the contemporary management system due to its ability to make sure that the goals set in the beginning of a project correspond exactly to the goals that were achieved later on.
It goes without saying that the primarily aim of any project is a certain definite result. It can be a definite product, a service or information concerning the required aspects. Project management came as an answer to a great demand on quality management using special innovative techniques.
Since a project can be applied to various spheres of activity of a company it automatically gets a wide range of usage. The fourth edition of David I. He views management as a constantly transforming solution-inventor directed to a successful result. The book examines the basic advantages of project management starting with general process and ending up with alternative project teams and the future of project management.
The author emphasizes that project management takes into count many other important aspects such as cultural elements of project management, interpersonal dynamics, possible prospects and the exact instruction for its implementation within any project. The book begins with the detailed explanation of how a manager is supposed to design and execute organizational strategies, or in other words to manage to control a project at any stage of its realization on practice.
It offers the newest achievements in the sphere of state-of-the-art team design and project life-cycle evaluation. Project management is designed for not only large organizations with a lot of experience but for small industrial organizations, too. Cleland introduces flexible teams for the implementations of the strategies in practice.
The implementation primarily occurs through the realization of changes either in products, services or in the processes of functioning of the organization. The principles of project management are completely related to the control of the organizational process.
Cleland himself defines a principle as: All of the principles listed above play a giant part in the right use of the project management strategy in order to successed. These principle state that first of all before beginning any activity within a project this step has to be revised in detail, in other words strategic planning goes before the step itself.
The project life cycle regulates the start, and the termination of the project, depending on the expenses and the productivity of the projects. Project management requires a clear division of responsibilities between different teams, which all together form one solid management block.
The person, who is in charge of the project, a project manager has to be competent enough in order to lead the project to its best potential. The project sponsor and the project team are supposed to present a mutual commitment to the project.
The main word to describe the notion of the future result of project management is success. This success is achieved through constant communication between the members of the project team, which provides a high quality cooperation that becomes rather effective in the long run.
There must be a planning team to set a plan with concrete objectives, goals, and tasks and limit the budget for the project and its deadline. The implementation of the project owing to the communication between the project members is expected to go in the given direction without any deviations at all.
It is this criterion that defines the effectiveness of the project management the most from the point of view of Cleland. So with the adjustment of the project plan the project itself goes through several phases: The maintenance is the vital part for any project product.
It requires deep planning and more strategy than any of the other phases. The project management system includes 5 main key elements that provide the correct work of the whole project structure. The division of responsibilities forms the matrix. Cultural ambience is very important for the successful implementation of a project due to the presence of the human factor in every single division. This has a high impact on project leadership and is the main factor in team management.
As David Cleland considers a project to be the leading force in the design and the usage of any strategy by a company he takes strategic issues of a project as the premises of its implementation.
The Board of Directors is to be responsible for analyzing strategic plan for any project and establishing capital projects. Stakeholder management is very helpful here, because the board of directors can appeal not to a definite project team in general, but to the senior project manager responsible for the work of the team.
He, in turn appeals to the team members he needs to correct the situation or just in order to control. To launch any project requires a very scrupulous work and some projects are just not worth of it. That is the reason some projects can be predicted to fail from the very beginning without wasting time and costs on its implementation.
Database of FREE project management essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas. Sample project management essays!
Project Management Essay Examples. 24 total results. Project Management and The Tasks of a Project Manager. 1, words. 4 pages. A Culture Analysis of a Project Management. 1, words. 4 pages. Project Management and the Use of the Internet. words. 1 page. An Analysis of the Stages of Business Project Management.
A Survey of Project Management Websites - This assignment calls for an internet search of four project management-related terms and a summarization of three websites regarding one of these topics as well as the Project Management Institute’s website. management methods when looking at technical approaches to a project. Within this essay, I have examined the various merits of pattern-based and more traditional methods to project management, which has led towards several conclusions.
Search to find a specific project management essay or browse from the list below: Scottish Architecture Building The Scottish Parliament Building- A report into Project Failure Introduction Sitting within the UNESCO World Heritage site, the new home to the Scottish Parliament in Holyrood. Project management is one of the most important and critical tool or technique, which defines the entire course of development of any kind of project. Project management works as an ignition for the chain reaction of the whole development cycle.