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Sociology: Terms and Definitions


❶The ideas, words, values, morals, and beliefs that humans use to interpret the world; the symbolic system becomes human reality.

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Glossary of Terms in Sociology

According to Bogardus sociology has a long past but only a short history. The earliest attempts at systematic thought regarding social life in the west may be said to have begun with the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and his disciple Aristotle. Plato's Republic is an analysis of the city community in all its aspects and in Aristotle's Ethics and Politics the first major attempt to deal systematically with the law, the society and the state.

In 16th century writers like Hobbes and Machiavelli provided more clear distinctions between state and society. Sir Thomas Moore who in his book Utopia published in tried to deal with every day social problems by means of depicting an ideal social order out what really meant for emulation. Italian writer Vico and French writer Montesquieu contributed towards the scientific investigation of social phenomenon. Vico in his book The New Science contended that society was subject to definite laws that can be observed through objective observation and study.

Montesquieu in his famous book The Spirit of Laws had analyzed the role that external factors especially climate play in the life of human society. Sociology emerged in the context of the sweeping changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to Europe.

Two other factors operating at the time also encouraged the development of sociology. The example of natural sciences if there methods could make so much sense of the physical world could they not be applied successfully to the social world.

Explore the year a word first appeared. Definition of sociology 1: See sociology defined for English-language learners See sociology defined for kids. Recent Examples of sociology from the Web Alicia Walker, an assistant professor of sociology at the Missouri State University, is asking people to send in pictures of their penises for a scientific study, according to The Springfield News-Leader.

Trenton State College provided me with a sociology professor who had researched the linguistic and cultural history of the hoagie. Camp, who studied sociology and business at Leeds Trinity University, got his first music business job with the U.

Council chair stand on the issues," 11 June Muggy is a native Oregonian, graduating with a bachelor's of science degree in sociology from the University of Oregon. Brye already holds a master's degree in sociology , and is preparing her prospectus in pursuit of a doctoral degree in instructional design from USA.

By Design shows clients how to spread the learning," 15 Apr. Other Sociology Terms bourgeois , ethos , eugenics , exurb , incommunicado , intelligentsia , megalopolis , metrosexual , mores , subculture.

Definition of sociology for English Language Learners. Learn More about sociology See words that rhyme with sociology Spanish Central: Seen and Heard What made you want to look up sociology? Subordinate women by segregating them from the rest of society when they have their cycle. An historical era in which urbanization and industrialization play key roles. Where nations are controlled economically rather than politically or militarily.

Formal organization that individuals join in order to promote an important social cause. Prescribed ways of behaving that have sanctions attached to them example: Originated in the American South and was eventually adopted by the entire nation. Culture or way of life where norms, values, and beliefs are in opposition to mainstream culture; in many oppositional cultures, acts of deviance are rewarded.

A system of stratification where men are given more power and prestige than women. Low income nations that are dependent on wealthier nations for foreign aid and investment. Consistent patterns of behavior that a person or individual exhibits. An historical period in which mass media and advertising play key roles.

The ability of one actor to influence the behavior of another in a social organization. Groups of ruling people who tend to have power in different kinds of institutional spheres. Emphasis in scientific management that reduced the amount of worker innovation and pressed workers to perform the same steps in the same way.

Positive or negative cultural attitude that is directed toward members of a group or social category; combines beliefs and value judgments with positive or negative emotions.

In labeling theory, deviant behavior that is not noticed and labeled as deviant; most of us exhibit primary deviance. Groups that tend to be small in number, last long periods of time, be non-goal directed, and tend to create intimate self-revealing social relations. Inheritance ritual where property of the estate is passed down to the oldest male in the family.

An ideology that justifies wealth and poverty. The practice of keeping men from seeing women. A category or group of people having hereditary traits that set them apart.

Prejudice and discrimination based on race; any action or characteristic of a social system that supports race privilege. Theoretical framework which argues that gender inequality is rooted in the system of patriarchy itself and seeks to overthrow patriarchy and gender role in order to bring about gender equality. Based on rules laws and regulations. Organizational emphasis on efficiency, predictability, calculability, and nonhuman technologies that control people.

This occurs when people live in areas where there is a higher concentration of a certain race or ethnic group. A condition where individuals in groups make decisions that tend to be more risky than they would if they were taking action on their own.

A set of actions or behaviors performed ceremoniously and have symbolic meaning. Role conflict occurs when the demands of one role clash with the demands of another. Placing your self in the role of another in order to see yourself from that perspective. Like in a movie, roles are scripts for behavior, but unlike a movie, social roles are ambiguous and negotiable; roles are generally attached to status positions.

Reactions to behaviors that are designed to encourage positive sanctions or discourage negative sanctions the behavior; social sanctions are a necessary part of social control.

Those who are less fortunate in society take out their frustration on others who are disadvantaged as well and blame them as the cause of the social problems.

Occurs when certain racial or ethnic groups are blamed as the cause of social problems such as joblessness and high crime. Knowledge system based on beliefs in the empirical world and laboratory research.

The work that gets done at home after working outside of the home in a full-time job. Groups that tend to last shorter periods of time, tend to be goal directed, and tend toward superficial relationships. Where individuals believe, either consciously or subconsciously, in the labels that are ascribed to them.

Middle-income nations that are undergoing the process of modernization and who often exploit the poorer nations as well. Socially agreed-upon biological criteria; in the US, the criteria is generally seen as only allowing two possibilities male, female , but biologically it is more true that there are at least five male, female, true hermaphrodites, male pseudohermaphrodi. The process where individuals define what is real through their repeated interactions and negotiations.

Social moral structures that are external to and coercive of the individual; they have a fact-like basis in that they are difficult to resist. A collection of individuals who interact with one another and have feelings of unity or belonging. The patterned unequal distribution of scarce resources class, status, power by group membership. The amount of movement up or down on one or more of the three structures of inequality class, status, power ; generally changes occur due to structural changes new job markets opening or new technologies , not through individual effort.

The social process through which scarce resources are consistently distributed unequally among social groups. Patterns of behavior that are repeated over and over until they become an established part of society.

Identifiable social organizations that include large numbers of communities, formal organizations, groups, and dyads; a large social union that arranges other groups into a self-sufficient system.

John Scott and Gordon Marshall

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Symbolic interactionist perspective - A sociological framework that views society as a product of the everyday social interactions of individuals.

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Free sociology dictionary defining key sociological terms, concepts & vocabulary with examples, sample sentences, audio pronunciation & related definitions.

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In political sociology, the view that society is composed of competing interest groups, with power diffused among them. Policy research Research designed to assess alternative possibilities for public or social action, in terms of their costs and/or consequences. Basic Concepts & Terms of Sociology. The basic premise of sociology is that human behavior is largely shaped by the groups to which people belong and by the social interaction that takes place within those groups. The main focus of sociology is the group not the individual.

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Sociology definition is - the science of society, social institutions, and social relationships; specifically: the systematic study of the development, structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of human beings. Term Definition Module Academic Discipline Specific ways of studying the world. 1 Adaptation The set of structures that serve to extract from the environment the things that the organism or society needs to survive (in animals: the digestive system; in society: the economy) 4 Agents of Socialization Those parts of society that are charged.